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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (62)
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1

What is evolution?

a change in heritable traits of a population over time

2

What is a population?

same species, living the same place, at the same time

3

What is a trait?

a distinguishing characteristic of an organism

4

What are the two components of cell theory?

all living organisms are composed of cells
cells arise from cells

5

What does natural selection act upon?

individuals, not populations

6

What was Charles Lyell's idea?

the earth was formed by a combination of slow-moving forces

7

What was Lamarck's idea?

Acquired characteristics can be passed on to offspring

8

What was the idea of special creation?

species are immutable/incapable of change

9

What are the two categories that are used to classify organisms?

genus + species

10

What is a intact fossil?

both interior and exterior architecture of the structure is preserved

11

What is a compression fossil?

weight compresses a "shadow" of the organism or plant that was on the rock

12

What is a cast fossil?

only the exterior architecture of the structure is preserved

13

What is a permineralized fossil?

Extremely slow decomposition and cell interior hardens

14

True or false? The process of fossil formation requires rapid burial and slow decomposition

true

15

True or false? sedimentary and metamorphic rock are unlikely to contain fossils

False. Igneous and metamorphic do not contain fossils

16

What is taxonomic bias?

trying to determine what the organism looked like

17

What is habitat bias?

trying to determine where the organism lived

18

What is temporal bias?

trying to determine when the organism lived

19

What is abundance bias?

trying to determine how many of that organism lived

20

What are vestigial traits?

traits that we no longer need as humans but needed before we evolved. ex: wisdom teeth, appendix

21

What is evolution by natural selection?

a change in the allele frequency of a population over time

22

What are the 3 conditions need to be met for evolution to occur?

the trait needs to vary, the trait needs to be heritable, and there must be competition for survival

23

What does darwin mean when he says "fitness"

being fit means being able to reproduce more compared to others

24

What does it mean to say that "evolution is not progressive"

there are no "higher" and "lower" life forms

25

What does it mean to say that evolution has historical constraints?

traits in populations evolve from previously existing traits

26

What does it mean to say that not all traits are adaptive?

vestigal traits are reduced in size and function

27

What does it mean to say that there are trade-offs in evolution?

evolution involves compromise

28

What does it mean to say that evolution has genetic constraints?

combinations of alleles are carried together on the same chromosome

29

What is not an example of microevolution?

altered beak shape in galapagos finches

30

What does structural homology mean?

similar structure between species due to a common ancestor