Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (62)
What is evolution?
a change in heritable traits of a population over time
What is a population?
same species, living the same place, at the same time
What is a trait?
a distinguishing characteristic of an organism
What are the two components of cell theory?
all living organisms are composed of cells
cells arise from cells
What does natural selection act upon?
individuals, not populations
What was Charles Lyell's idea?
the earth was formed by a combination of slow-moving forces
What was Lamarck's idea?
Acquired characteristics can be passed on to offspring
What was the idea of special creation?
species are immutable/incapable of change
What are the two categories that are used to classify organisms?
genus + species
What is a intact fossil?
both interior and exterior architecture of the structure is preserved
What is a compression fossil?
weight compresses a "shadow" of the organism or plant that was on the rock
What is a cast fossil?
only the exterior architecture of the structure is preserved
What is a permineralized fossil?
Extremely slow decomposition and cell interior hardens
True or false? The process of fossil formation requires rapid burial and slow decomposition
True or false? sedimentary and metamorphic rock are unlikely to contain fossils
False. Igneous and metamorphic do not contain fossils
What is taxonomic bias?
trying to determine what the organism looked like
What is habitat bias?
trying to determine where the organism lived
What is temporal bias?
trying to determine when the organism lived
What is abundance bias?
trying to determine how many of that organism lived
What are vestigial traits?
traits that we no longer need as humans but needed before we evolved. ex: wisdom teeth, appendix
What is evolution by natural selection?
a change in the allele frequency of a population over time
What are the 3 conditions need to be met for evolution to occur?
the trait needs to vary, the trait needs to be heritable, and there must be competition for survival
What does darwin mean when he says "fitness"
being fit means being able to reproduce more compared to others
What does it mean to say that "evolution is not progressive"
there are no "higher" and "lower" life forms
What does it mean to say that evolution has historical constraints?
traits in populations evolve from previously existing traits
What does it mean to say that not all traits are adaptive?
vestigal traits are reduced in size and function
What does it mean to say that there are trade-offs in evolution?
evolution involves compromise
What does it mean to say that evolution has genetic constraints?
combinations of alleles are carried together on the same chromosome
What is not an example of microevolution?
altered beak shape in galapagos finches