Quiz 3 Flashcards Preview

Evolution > Quiz 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the central dogma of biology?

DNA makes RNA that makes protein that creates traits

2

What is the primary structure?

a chain of nucleotides in a sequence

3

What is secondary structure?

double helix

4

What is tertiary structure?

multiple double helices folded together
ex: chromosome

5

What is a gene?

A length of DNA that
1. encodes info for building a protein
2. contains sequences for transcription

6

What did the human genome project determine?

that human DNA is about 2 billion base-pairs long

7

What is a prokaryote?

a cell with one chromosome

8

What is a eukaryote?

a cell with multiple chromosomes

9

What is mtDNA?

mitochondrial DNA

10

What are the 3 main things about chromosomes?

Present in the nucleus of a prokaryote
Normally dispersed within nucleus
Condense during cell division

11

What forms the template for synthesis?

DNA

12

What is transcription?

the process of making RNA from a DNA template

13

What are the 4 bases?

adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine

14

What is the secondary structure of RNA?

stem and loop

15

What are the three types of RNA?

messenger RNA
ribosomal RNA
transfer RNA

16

What are the 3 codons used in translation?

Start codon
Stop codons
Remaining codons

17

What is a ribosome?

globular protein + rRNA

18

What is the primary structure of a protein?

amino acid strand

19

What is the secondary structure of a protein?

alpha helices and beta sheets

20

What is the tertiary structure of a protein?

3D folding

21

What happens if there is a mistake during DNA synthesis?

the sequence changes, so the gene changes, so the protein changes

22

What is a mutation?

a permanent change in DNA which changes the genotype

23

What are the 4 types of mutations?

silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift

24

What is a point mutation?

a change in a single base in DNA

25

What is a silent mutation?

a change in a nucleotide does not change the amino acid

26

What is a missense mutation?

a change in the nucleotide that changes the amino acid

27

What is a nonsense mutation?

change in nucleotide that results in early stop codon

28

What is a frame shift mutation?

addition or deletion of a nucleotide

29

What is a chromosome inversion?

a segment of the chromosome flips and re-attaches to the same chromosome

30

What is chromosome translocation?

a segment of the chromosome detaches and re-attaches to a different chromosome