Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (32)
What is the central dogma of biology?
DNA makes RNA that makes protein that creates traits
What is the primary structure?
a chain of nucleotides in a sequence
What is secondary structure?
What is tertiary structure?
multiple double helices folded together
What is a gene?
A length of DNA that
1. encodes info for building a protein
2. contains sequences for transcription
What did the human genome project determine?
that human DNA is about 2 billion base-pairs long
What is a prokaryote?
a cell with one chromosome
What is a eukaryote?
a cell with multiple chromosomes
What is mtDNA?
What are the 3 main things about chromosomes?
Present in the nucleus of a prokaryote
Normally dispersed within nucleus
Condense during cell division
What forms the template for synthesis?
What is transcription?
the process of making RNA from a DNA template
What are the 4 bases?
adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
What is the secondary structure of RNA?
stem and loop
What are the three types of RNA?
What are the 3 codons used in translation?
What is a ribosome?
globular protein + rRNA
What is the primary structure of a protein?
amino acid strand
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
alpha helices and beta sheets
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
What happens if there is a mistake during DNA synthesis?
the sequence changes, so the gene changes, so the protein changes
What is a mutation?
a permanent change in DNA which changes the genotype
What are the 4 types of mutations?
silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift
What is a point mutation?
a change in a single base in DNA
What is a silent mutation?
a change in a nucleotide does not change the amino acid
What is a missense mutation?
a change in the nucleotide that changes the amino acid
What is a nonsense mutation?
change in nucleotide that results in early stop codon
What is a frame shift mutation?
addition or deletion of a nucleotide
What is a chromosome inversion?
a segment of the chromosome flips and re-attaches to the same chromosome