Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Evolution > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the definition of meiosis?

Division of a nucleus to produce four daughter cells with half the genetic DNA of their parents

2

What are 3 differences between mitosis and meiosis?

There is an extra step in meiosis -- reduced by 1/2.
Mitosis produces a clone. Mitosis is asexual and meiosis is sexual.

3

What general category of cells does meiosis occur?

sexual reproduction/gametes

4

True or false: Bacteria only undergoes meiosis when gametes are being produced

Fasle: bacteria only undergoes mitosis

5

What is the chromosomal structure that lines up during metaphase 1?

homologus pairs

6

What is the chromosomal structure that lines up during metaphase 2?

Sister chromatids

7

What does diploid mean?

2(n)

8

True or false? Crossing over occurs during late prophase 2 of meiosis

Fasle: it occurs in late prophase 1

9

In order for crossing over to occur between homologous chromosomes, the homologous pairs must line up and make a protein bridge connection called...

synapsis

10

The exact locations on the chromosomes where crossing over occurs is called...

chiasma

11

During what stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?

During the S phase

12

What happens in early prophase 1?

chromosome condense, spindle apparatus appears

13

What happens in late prophase 1?

synapses form, crossing over occurs

14

What happens in metaphase 1?

homologous pairs line up in the center of the cell

15

What happens in anaphase 1?

homologous pairs of chromosomes are pulled apart

16

What happens in telophase 1?

new nuclear membranes form, spindle breaks apart

17

What happens in prophase 2?

chromosomes condense, spindle apparatus appears

18

What happens in metaphase 2?

sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell

19

What happens in anaphase 2?

sister chromatids are pulled apart

20

What happens in telophase 2?

new nuclear membranes form, spindle breaks apart

21

What part of the paradox of sex explains sexual reproduction produces 50% male, and male offspring do not produce more offspring?

Two fold cost of males

22

What part of the paradox of sex explains sexual reproduction allows for organisms to adapt to the changes in the environment?

the changing environment hypothesis

23

What part of the paradox of sex explains sexual reproduction allows for purification of bad genes?

purifying selection hypothesis

24

What is Mendel's principle of segregation?

States that each gamete contains 1 allele for each trait

25

What specific kind of inheritance pattern will show up in a reciprocal cross?

An X-linked inheritance

26

What is a simple trait?

a trait that has two versions

27

What is an allele?

a version of a gene

28

What is a gamete?

sex cell (egg or sperm)

29

What is a trait?

a characteristic of an organism

30

What is the genotype of a homozygous recessive parent? (using G)

gg