Quiz8 Flashcards Preview

Evolution > Quiz8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz8 Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is phylogeny?

the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

2

What does a phylogenetic tree show?

ancestor-descendant relationships

3

What are the 3 parts of the phylogenetic tree?

branch, node, and terminal node

4

What is the branch of a phylogenetic tree?

the population through time

5

What is the node of a phylogenetic tree?

when ancestral populations split into 2 or more descendants

6

What is the terminal node of a phylogenetic tree?

the tip or endpoint of a branch

7

What are the 3 characteristics that relationships among species are based off of?

1. morphology
2. behavior
3. development

8

What are the 3 characteristics that relationships among species are based off of?

1. morphology
2. behavior
3. development

9

What are the two methods of construction of a phylogenetic tree?

phenetic approach and cladistic approach

10

What is the phenetic approach?

focused on overall observable traits

11

What is the clastidic approach?

focused on overall similarity in acnestory

12

What is modern genetics?

uses gene sequences to estimate genetic diseases

13

What is "synapomorphies"?

a trait in a group of species in a clade that doesn't exist in other clades

14

What does synapomorphies help construct?

monophyletic groups

15

What is a clade?

ancestor population + all of its desendants

16

What is homology?

when similar traits in two groups that suggests a common ancestor

17

What is homoplasy?

when similar traits evolve independently

18

What is the one cause of homoplasy?

convergent evolution

19

What is the one cause of homoplasy?

convergent evolution

20

What is the principle of parsimony?

most likely an explanation for a petrol is the one that implies the least amount of change