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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (73)
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1

What is evolution?

a change in the heritable characteristics of a population over time

2

What is evolution by natural selection?

a change in the allele frequency in a population over time

3

What are the two parts of cell theory?

1. all organisms are composed of cells
2. all cells arise from existing cells

4

What is a population?

a group of individuals of the same SPECIES living in the SAME AREA at the SAME TIME

5

What is a trait?

a distinguishing feature of an organism

6

What is natural selection?

the process by which individuals with certain heritable traits are better able to survive and reproduce compared to other members of the population; process by which these individuals are naturally selected

7

What is genetic drift?

a change in the frequency of an allele due to a random sampling

8

What is gene flow?

is the transfer of alleles from one population to another population through immigration of individuals.

9

What is sexual selection?

a type of natural selection that favors individuals who have a combination of heritable traits that are most useful in obtaining a mate

10

What is a mutation?

a heritable change in the genetic material of an organism

11

What is fitness?

ability to produce offspring relative to other individuals

12

What is adaptation? (noun)

heritable trait that increases fitness of a particular individual in a particular environment

13

What is adaptation? (verb)

an evolutionary process; alters an organism’s phenotype to enhance its ability to survive in its particular environmental niche

14

What is a gene?

a length of DNA that encodes for a protein

15

What is an allele?

a version of a gene

16

What is a chromosome?

a gene-carrying structure consisting of a molecule of DNA and associated with histone proteins

17

What is a genotype?

the genetic makeup of an individual

18

What is a phenotype?

the physical characteristics of an organism

19

What is a species? (3 parts)

an identifiable group that is distinct in
1. appearance, behavior and habitat
2. interbreeds
3. evolutionarily indépendant

20

What is the central dogma?

DNA is transcribed into RNA and RNA is translated into proteins which make up traits

21

What is transcription?

the process of making an equivalent RNA copy from a DNA sequence

22

What is translation?

when the genetic code is decoded to produce a specific amino acid sequence that encodes for a protein

23

What is DNA synthesis?

natural creation of DNA molecules

24

What is mitosis?

when the replicated chromosomes are divided for placement into two new daughter nuclei with identical chromosomes

25

What is meiosis?

replication results in 4 daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes from the parent cell

26

What is the definition of a homozygous?

identical pairs (AA or aa)

27

What is the definition of a heterozygous?

one dominant and one recessive allele (Aa or aA)

28

What is gene linkage?

physical association of genes on a chromosome

29

What are the 5 mechanisms of genetic change?

1. Natural selection
2. Genetic Drift
3. Gene flow
4. Mutation
5. Non-random mating

30

What are the 4 types of natural selection?

1. balancing
2. directionality
3. stabilizing
4. disruptive