Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (30)
What is the definition of natural selection?
the process by which individuals with heritable traits are better able to survive and reproduce compared to other members of a population
What are the 3 things that must happen for natural selection to occur?
1. train must be heritable
2. trait must vary
3. must be competition for survival
What are the 2 conditions in which natural selection occurs?
1. individuals have an advantage
2. they pass on that advantage to an offspring
What are advantageous traits also called?
What is frequency?
the percentage of traits in the population that increases from generation to generation
What is "fitness" in darwin's vocab?
ability to produce offspring
What is "adaptation" as a noun in darwin's vocab?
heritable trait that increase fitness of a particular individual
What is "adaptation" as a verb in darwin's vocab?
an evolutionary process that alters a phenotype to enhance ability to survive
What is an allele?
a version of a gene
What is a gene?
length of DNA that encodes for a protein
What are the 4 things that alleles for genes can determine?
1. body size
2. way it moves
3. way it procures food
4. way it protects itself
What is allele frequency?
total number of particular allele
total number of all alleles (in a gene pool)
What is a gene pool?
all the particular alleles in a population
What is something important to keep in mind in regards to evolution and natural selection?
evolution is not always brought about through natural selection
What is the definition of evolution?
The change in heritable characteristics of a population over time
What is the definition of evolution by natural selection?
a change in the allele frequency in a population over time
What is true about evolution in regards to individuals and populations?
individuals do not evolve, populations do
What are the 5 steps of natural selection?
variation in traits -> certain traits naturally selected for -> differential survival -> differential reproduction -> evolution
What was the largest example of natural selection presented in class?
What was lamarck's ideology?
individuals change in response to the environment
What was darwin's ideology?
individuals have the ability to adapt and produce more offspring
Evolution is not goal it is...
Evolution results from....
Are all traits adaptive?
What are the two constraints that evolution is under?
genetic constraints and historical constraints
What are adaptations due to?
What is the key idea with self preservation?
most organisms in the end only look out for their own well-being
What is the key idea with genetic constraints?
results from different patterns of inheritance
What is the key idea with historical constraints?
all traits have evolved from previously existing traits