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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (30)
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1

What is the definition of natural selection?

the process by which individuals with heritable traits are better able to survive and reproduce compared to other members of a population

2

What are the 3 things that must happen for natural selection to occur?

1. train must be heritable
2. trait must vary
3. must be competition for survival

3

What are the 2 conditions in which natural selection occurs?

1. individuals have an advantage
2. they pass on that advantage to an offspring

4

What are advantageous traits also called?

adaptive traits

5

What is frequency?

the percentage of traits in the population that increases from generation to generation

6

What is "fitness" in darwin's vocab?

ability to produce offspring

7

What is "adaptation" as a noun in darwin's vocab?

heritable trait that increase fitness of a particular individual

8

What is "adaptation" as a verb in darwin's vocab?

an evolutionary process that alters a phenotype to enhance ability to survive

9

What is an allele?

a version of a gene

10

What is a gene?

length of DNA that encodes for a protein

11

What are the 4 things that alleles for genes can determine?

an organism's...
1. body size
2. way it moves
3. way it procures food
4. way it protects itself

12

What is allele frequency?

total number of particular allele
divided by
total number of all alleles (in a gene pool)

13

What is a gene pool?

all the particular alleles in a population

14

What is something important to keep in mind in regards to evolution and natural selection?

evolution is not always brought about through natural selection

15

What is the definition of evolution?

The change in heritable characteristics of a population over time

16

What is the definition of evolution by natural selection?

a change in the allele frequency in a population over time

17

What is true about evolution in regards to individuals and populations?

individuals do not evolve, populations do

18

What are the 5 steps of natural selection?

variation in traits -> certain traits naturally selected for -> differential survival -> differential reproduction -> evolution

19

What was the largest example of natural selection presented in class?

Tuberculosis

20

What was lamarck's ideology?

individuals change in response to the environment

21

What was darwin's ideology?

individuals have the ability to adapt and produce more offspring

22

Evolution is not goal it is...

progressive

23

Evolution results from....

self preservation

24

Are all traits adaptive?

no

25

What are the two constraints that evolution is under?

genetic constraints and historical constraints

26

What are adaptations due to?

random mutations

27

What is the key idea with self preservation?

most organisms in the end only look out for their own well-being

28

What is the key idea with genetic constraints?

results from different patterns of inheritance

29

What is the key idea with historical constraints?

all traits have evolved from previously existing traits

30

What is the result of environmental influence?

a compromise between traits