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Flashcards in Exam 1- Chapter 1 Deck (44)
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Who are the women of nursing in history?

Florence Nightingale
Dorothea Dix
Clara Barton
Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster


Early hospitals were founded by what?

Religious Groups


What is the Goldmark report?

Advocating financial support of university-based schools of nursing


What is The Institute of Medicine

A report: leading change and advancing health


Ancient History of Nursing

Need for nurses.
Boundary between nursing and medicine often blurred.
Christianity improved nursing by attracting intelligent people and establishing military nursing orders.


Who was Florence Nightingale and why is she important?

-"Mother of Nursing"
-Founder of modern nursing
-Improved health laws (hand washing)
-Reformed hospitals/organized military medical services
-Established nursing as a profession
-Published Notes on Nursing (1859)
-Started Nightingale Training School for Nurses
-Sick nursing versus healthy nursing


Who founded Nurse Corps of the US Army, expanding nursing roles? (Civil War)

Dorothea Dix


Who founded the American Red Cross? (Civil War)

Clara Barton


What significant things happened in nursing during the Spanish war?

-Volunteer Nurse Corps established and becomes the Army Nurse Corps
-Navy Nurse Corps established


What significant thing happened in nursing during WWII?

Black nurses first admitted into military service.


What professional Nursing Organizations and Journals emerged in the Early 20th Century?

-American Nurses Association (ANA)
-National League for Nursing (NLN)
-American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)
-American Journal of Nursing


What changes are associated with nursing in the 21-st Century?

-Nurses need to be able to render care in a wide range of settings.
-Adapt to needs of diverse patients.
-Be knowledgable of emerging technologies.


What is socialization?

A process involving learning both theory and skills and also internalizing an identity appropriate to a specific role.


What is the Criteria of a Profession?

Having a specific body of knowledge and a set of values and skills that differentiate members of a profession from others.


What is Skill Proficiency in Nursing?

Patricia Benner (1984) identified five levels of proficiency in acquiring and developing nursing skills: Novice, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient and Expert.


What is Continuing education within nursing?

Some states require acquisition of continuing education for ongoing licensure.


What is a Certification?

A voluntary process that provides professional recognition of the knowledge, skills, and abilities within a practice area.


What are Standards of Practice? (Standards of Care)

The minimum acceptable guidelines for providing and evaluating nursing care. The ANA designates professional nursing responsibilities such as assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation.


What is Scope of Practice?

The legislation describing what nurses are legally authorized to do. The Nurse Practice Act of each state defines the scope of practice of nursing within the state.


What are the ANA Standards of Practice or Care? (Nursing Process)

-Outcome identification


What does each states Nurse Practice Act define?

The practice of nursing within its jurisdiction.


What does the American Nurses Association (ANA) do?

Sets the standards of practice for nurses and makes decisions about the functions, activities, and goals of the nursing profession.


What does Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), Honor Society of Nursing do?

Provides leadership and scholarship in practice, education, and research to enhance the health of all people.


What is the National Student Nurses' Association (NSNA)?

An autonomous organization that is financed and administered by students that serve as the voice of nursing students.


What are nursing responsibilities?

-Patient Advocate
-Decision Maker
-Manager and coordinator
(Goal is to do no harm)


The Quality and Safety Education for nurses (QSEN) initiative identified what key quality and safety competencies for nurses?

-Patient-centered care
-Teamwork and Collaboration
-Evidence-Based Practice
-Quality Improvement


What are the four central concepts in nursing practice that are defined and described in nursing theories?



What are the non-nursing theories used or adapted by nursing?

-General Systems Theory (Von Bertalanffy)
-Human Needs Theory (Maslow)
-Change Theory (Lewin)


What is the General Systems Theory?

Major assumptions of this theory include:
-All systems must be goal directed.
-A system is more than sum of its parts.
-A system is ever changing and any change in one part affects the whole.
-Boundaries are implicit, and human systems are open and dynamic.
(Roy, Neuman, Johnson, Parse)


What is Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs Theory?

(Most important needs to be met to least important)
-Physiologic needs
-Safety needs
-Love needs
-Esteem needs
-Self-actualization needs