Flashcards in Exam 2 chap 5 Deck (32)
Lipids provide and store energy, cushion vital organs, insulate against temperature extremes, form cell membranes, transport fat-soluble substances, and serve as raw materials.
Lipids provide abundant food energy in a small package, enhance aromas and flavors of foods, and contribute to satiety.
The body combines _____ fatty acids with one _____ to make a triglyceride, its storage form of fat.
Fatty acids in food influence the _____ of fats in the body.
____ ____ are energy-rich carbon chains that can be saturated (filled with hydrogens) or monounsaturated (with one point of unsaturation) or polyunsaturated (with more than one point of unsaturation).
The degree of _______ of the fatty acids in a fat determines the fat's softness or hardness.
Phospholipids play key roles in cell membranes.how?
they have selective permeability
_____ play roles as part of bile, vitamin D, the sex hormones, and other important compounds.
Plant sterols in foods inhibit _______ absorption.
In the _____, fats separate from other food components.
In the ____ ______, bile emulsifies the fats, enzymes digest them, and the intestinal cells absorb them.
______ and short-chain fatty acids travel in the bloodstream unassisted.
Other lipids need special transport vehicles—the ________—to carry them in watery body fluids.
____ fats act like saturated fats in the body.
Meats account for a large proportion of the hidden solid fat in many people's diets.
satureated/unsat fat is solid
The chief lipoproteins are chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL.
High blood LDL/HDL and low blood LDL/HDL are major heart disease risk factors.
______ fat and trans fat intakes raise blood cholesterol.
Dietary_______ seems to have little effect on blood cholesterol in most people.
_____ of the essential fatty acids are virtually unknown in the United States and Canada.
The essential fatty acids fall into two chemical families: omega-_ or omega-_ fatty acids.
The omega-6 family of polyunsaturated fatty acids includes _____acid and ______ acid.
The omega-3 family includes ______ acid, ____, and ____
linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA
___ and ____ may play roles in disease prevention, brain communication, and human development.
Many people should/should not increase their seafood consumption.
Supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are/are not recommended.
______ oils become more saturated when they are hydrogenated
_______ vegetable oils are useful, but they lose the health benefits of unsaturated oils