Exam 2: Endocrine Pharmacology pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2: Endocrine Pharmacology pt. 2 Deck (31):
1

What is the most popular oral drug for type 2 diabetes

Metformin (Glucophage)
- class of Biguanides

2

Benefits of Metformin

1. More effective than other agents
2. Reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality
3. Reduces rates of cancer in pts with Type 2 Diabetes.

-*there are more but these are bolded

3

Risks of Metformin

1. Lactic acidosis if renal impairment
- avoid alcohol
2. Gastrointestinal side effects

4

Mechanism of action for Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

Inhibits the enzyme (alpha-glucosidase) responsible for degrading complex carbohydrates in gut
- thus no monosaccharides are made available for absorption after a meal.

5

When taking Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors, what occurs after a meal?

There is a delay in blood glucose concentrations after a meal when taking these drugs

6

Mechanism of Action for Thiazolidinediones

Lower blood glucose by improving target cell response to insulin without increasing pancreatic insulin secretion
- reset insulin receptors = reduces insulin resistance

7

Activity of Thiazolidinediones depends on what?

Depends on the presence of insulin for activity

8

Name the Thiazolidinedione drugs

pioglitazone (Actos)
rosiglitazone (Avandia)

9

Which Thiazolidinedione has been associated with liver failure

rosiglitazone (Avandia)
- associated with > 30 deaths due to liver failure
- also increased risk for heart failure

10

Name the Incretins

GLP-1 receptor agonists (glucagon like peptide)
DPP-4 Inhibitors

11

Action of GLP-1 receptor agonists

Boost insulin production by pancreas
Slow absorption of food

12

Action of DPP-4 Inhibitors

Blocks the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that breaks down GLP-1 peptide in gut

13

What are the concerns with Incretin drugs

New concerns that these drugs cause inflammation and possible pre-cancerous changes of pancreas

14

What is the primary intervention to lower glucose in diabetics?

Obesity management

15

What is Estradiol

a steroid, natural estrogen
- Produced and secreted by the ovary

16

Name the Estrogen Replacement Drugs

-Conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin)
-Esterified estrogens (Estratab, Menest)
-Estradiol preps (many names...)

17

Conjugated equine estrogens are effective in what treatment?

In treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause
- May also be beneficial to prevent bone loss with osteoporosis (only while on drug)

18

Describe the serious side effect with Premarin and in women with an intact uterus:

- Increased risk for endometrial cancer
- May also increase risk for breast cancer if taken after menopause

19

What is the drug name of Estrogen with Progesterone?

Prempro

(also Premarin + Provera)

20

Benefits of Prempro?

Adding progesterone to the estrogen preparation reduces risk for endometrial cancer

21

Prempro usage may increase risk for what things?

1. Heart disease
2. Stroke
3. Pulmonary embolism
4. Invasive breast cancer

** May outweigh long term use to prevent osteoporosis

22

What are the guidelines for HRT use today:

Short term use only
- less than 5 years
Used to treat symptoms of menopause

23

Natural progesterone is produced and secreted by what body part?

corpus luteum

24

Physiological action of natural progesterone

induces a secretory endometrium
- Affects uterine mobility and cervical mucous

25

Progesterone replacement drugs are generally used for what?

1. Treatment of menstrual disorders
2. Prevention of habitual abortion
3. Treatment of endometriosis
4. Contraception

26

What does it mean that testosterone is used as a male climacteric?

When testosterone slowly decreases as well as sexual function during fourth or fifth decades, men may exhibit "menopausal" symptoms and can be treated with testosterone.

27

What is Hypogonadism

Clinical syndrome which comprises both symptoms and biochemical evidence of T deficiency

28

Evidence suggests that testosterone levels are associated with what things

1. linked to general health of male population
2. Biomarker for presence of occult diseases (cancer, early death, atherosclerosis)

29

Is testosterone therapy beneficial for women?

Only if women are postmenopausal with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

30

T or F, There are NO FDA approved testosterone products for women

True

31

Anabolic steroids can increase muscle mass how much?

by 30%