Exam 3: Antineoplastic agents pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Antineoplastic agents pt. 2 Deck (42):
1

Explain what Platinum complexes are and their action

- Platinum ions surrounded by chloride ions
- (B) Inhibit DNA synthesis and repair
- Induces cell death via apoptosis or necrosis

2

Name the drugs considered Platinum complexes and what cancers they treat

1. (B) carboplatin (Paraplatin)
a. Small-cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck cancer
2. (B) cisplatin (Platinol)
a. Bladder, testicular, ovarian, head and neck cancer
3. Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
a. Advanced colon and advanced rectal cancer

3

Platinum based chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of what cancers?

1. Gynecologic
2. Bladder
3. Testicular (metastatic disease)
4. Lung
5. Central nervous system
6. Head and Neck cancers (Squamous cell)

4

List the Platinum-derived compound toxicities

- Myelosuppression
- Nephrotoxicity
- Neurotoxicity
- Ototoxicity
- Nausea/vomiting

5

Which chemotherapy drug is derived from periwinkle plant?

Vinca Alkyloids

6

Action of Vinca Alkyloids

(B) Inhibit mitotic division by interfering with microtubular proteins involved in the formation of mitotic spindles

7

Are Vinca Alkyloids cell-cycle specific or non-specific?

- Cell Cycle Specific
- (B) **M and S phases

8

Name the drugs considered Vinca Alkyloids

1. (B) Vinblastine (Valban)
2. (B) Vincristine (Oncovin)

9

What cancers are treated with vinca alkyloids?

- Hodgkin's lymphoma, other lymphomas
- Breast cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Kaposi's sarcoma

10

Are there side effects with vinca alkyloids?

- Yes, high incidence of side effects
- Neurotoxicity = may cause hearing loss (ototoxic)

11

Are Hormonal Agents cell-cycle specific or non-specific?

- Cell-cycle specific
- **G phase interruption

12

Name the hormonal agents used for chemotherapy?

1. Estrogens
2. Androgens
3. Progestins
4. Glucocorticoids
5. antiestrogens

13

What cancers do Estrogens treat?

Prostate and mammary CA

14

Name the estrogen preparations used in chemotherapy

ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl, Feminone)

15

What cancers do Androgens treat

Mammary CA in premenopausal women

16

Name the Androgen preparations used in chemotherapy

1. testosterone proprionate (Testrx)
2. fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)

17

What cancers do Progestins treat

renal and endometrial CA

18

Name the Progestin preparations used in chemotherapy

1. medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)
2. megestrol (Megace)

19

What cancers do Glucocorticoids treat?

hematologic
lymphomas
bone metastases
immunosuppression for organ transplantation

20

Name the glucocorticoid preparations used in chemotherapy

Prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Sterapred)

21

Explain the anti tumor effects of glucocorticoids

These effects may be related to inhibition of glucose transport, phosphorylation, or induction of cell death in immature lymphocytes

22

What cancers does tamoxifen (Nolvadex) treat

(It is an anti estrogen)
- Breast CA treatment and prevention

23

Describe the mechanism of action of tamoxifen (Nolvadex)

- Competitively binds to estrogen receptors on tumors and other target tissues
- Decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen effects

24

Is tamoxifen cell-cycle specific or non-specific?

Cell-cycle specific
- **G0 and G1 phases

25

Is tamoxifen cytocidal or cytostatic?

Cytostatic

26

Name the adverse effects of tamoxifen

Uterine cancer
stroke
pulmonary emboli
liver problems
osteoporosis

27

Describe the function of Antibiotics in chemotherapy

Cytotoxins bind with DNA to inhibit cell division

28

Are antibiotics cell-cycle specific or non-specific

Attack cells in different phases
- Non-cell cycle specific
- Cell cycle specific

29

Antibiotics are most effective for what cancers?

Solid mass tumors

30

Name the selected agents used to treat chemotherapy classified as antibiotics

1. bleomycin (Blenoxane)
2. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
3. daunorubicin citrate (DaunoXome)

31

What cancers does bleomycin treat?

Squamous cell CA
Testicular tumor
Lymphomas

32

Is bleomycin cell-cycle specific or non-specific

Cell cycle specific
- *** G2, M phases

33

doxorubican treats what cancers?

Kaposi's sarcoma, advanced breast and ovarian CA

34

mechanism of action for doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis

35

Is doxorubicin (Adriamycin) cell-cycle specific or non-specific

Cell cycle specific
- S phase

36

daunorubicin citrate (DaunoXome) treats what cancers?

*** (B) HIV-associated Kaposi's Sarcoma

37

Action of thalidomide (Thalomid)

Angiogenesis inhibitor
Immunosuppresant
TNF blocking agent

(multiple mechanisms of action)

38

Indications for thalidomide

- Leprosy
- Investigational for:
- (B) Multiple myeloma
- Crohn's disease
- graft versus host disease
- (B) AIDS-related aphthous lesions

39

thalidomide is famous for what fact from it's history?

Drug from 1950's for morning sickness, sedation
= All first generation offspring had major limb defects

40

thalidomide is the classic model drug for what?

teratogenesis

41

Systemic effects of chemotherapy

1. Suppression of bone marrow
2. GI disturbances
3. Dermatological reactions
4. Hepatotoxicity
5. Neurotoxicity
6. Nephrotoxicity
7. Immune deficiencies
8. Infertility

42

Name the oral manifestations of Chemotherapy

1. Oral complications cause great discomfort
2. Interfere with eating, drinking, swallowing, talking, etc.
3. Painful
4. Secondary infection risk concern