Flashcards in Exam 3: Antineoplastic agents pt. 2 Deck (42):
Explain what Platinum complexes are and their action
- Platinum ions surrounded by chloride ions
- (B) Inhibit DNA synthesis and repair
- Induces cell death via apoptosis or necrosis
Name the drugs considered Platinum complexes and what cancers they treat
1. (B) carboplatin (Paraplatin)
a. Small-cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck cancer
2. (B) cisplatin (Platinol)
a. Bladder, testicular, ovarian, head and neck cancer
3. Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
a. Advanced colon and advanced rectal cancer
Platinum based chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of what cancers?
3. Testicular (metastatic disease)
5. Central nervous system
6. Head and Neck cancers (Squamous cell)
List the Platinum-derived compound toxicities
Which chemotherapy drug is derived from periwinkle plant?
Action of Vinca Alkyloids
(B) Inhibit mitotic division by interfering with microtubular proteins involved in the formation of mitotic spindles
Are Vinca Alkyloids cell-cycle specific or non-specific?
- Cell Cycle Specific
- (B) **M and S phases
Name the drugs considered Vinca Alkyloids
1. (B) Vinblastine (Valban)
2. (B) Vincristine (Oncovin)
What cancers are treated with vinca alkyloids?
- Hodgkin's lymphoma, other lymphomas
- Breast cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Kaposi's sarcoma
Are there side effects with vinca alkyloids?
- Yes, high incidence of side effects
- Neurotoxicity = may cause hearing loss (ototoxic)
Are Hormonal Agents cell-cycle specific or non-specific?
- Cell-cycle specific
- **G phase interruption
Name the hormonal agents used for chemotherapy?
What cancers do Estrogens treat?
Prostate and mammary CA
Name the estrogen preparations used in chemotherapy
ethinyl estradiol (Estinyl, Feminone)
What cancers do Androgens treat
Mammary CA in premenopausal women
Name the Androgen preparations used in chemotherapy
1. testosterone proprionate (Testrx)
2. fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)
What cancers do Progestins treat
renal and endometrial CA
Name the Progestin preparations used in chemotherapy
1. medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)
2. megestrol (Megace)
What cancers do Glucocorticoids treat?
immunosuppression for organ transplantation
Name the glucocorticoid preparations used in chemotherapy
Prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Sterapred)
Explain the anti tumor effects of glucocorticoids
These effects may be related to inhibition of glucose transport, phosphorylation, or induction of cell death in immature lymphocytes
What cancers does tamoxifen (Nolvadex) treat
(It is an anti estrogen)
- Breast CA treatment and prevention
Describe the mechanism of action of tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
- Competitively binds to estrogen receptors on tumors and other target tissues
- Decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen effects
Is tamoxifen cell-cycle specific or non-specific?
- **G0 and G1 phases
Is tamoxifen cytocidal or cytostatic?
Name the adverse effects of tamoxifen
Describe the function of Antibiotics in chemotherapy
Cytotoxins bind with DNA to inhibit cell division
Are antibiotics cell-cycle specific or non-specific
Attack cells in different phases
- Non-cell cycle specific
- Cell cycle specific
Antibiotics are most effective for what cancers?
Solid mass tumors
Name the selected agents used to treat chemotherapy classified as antibiotics
1. bleomycin (Blenoxane)
2. doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
3. daunorubicin citrate (DaunoXome)
What cancers does bleomycin treat?
Squamous cell CA
Is bleomycin cell-cycle specific or non-specific
Cell cycle specific
- *** G2, M phases
doxorubican treats what cancers?
Kaposi's sarcoma, advanced breast and ovarian CA
mechanism of action for doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis
Is doxorubicin (Adriamycin) cell-cycle specific or non-specific
Cell cycle specific
- S phase
daunorubicin citrate (DaunoXome) treats what cancers?
*** (B) HIV-associated Kaposi's Sarcoma
Action of thalidomide (Thalomid)
TNF blocking agent
(multiple mechanisms of action)
Indications for thalidomide
- Investigational for:
- (B) Multiple myeloma
- Crohn's disease
- graft versus host disease
- (B) AIDS-related aphthous lesions
thalidomide is famous for what fact from it's history?
Drug from 1950's for morning sickness, sedation
= All first generation offspring had major limb defects
thalidomide is the classic model drug for what?
Systemic effects of chemotherapy
1. Suppression of bone marrow
2. GI disturbances
3. Dermatological reactions
7. Immune deficiencies