Exam #2: Head & Neck Examination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Head & Neck Examination Deck (51)
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1

What are the seven attributes of a symptom?

1) Location
2) Quality
3) Quantity
4) Timing
5) Setting (in which it occurs)
6) Mitigating & Exacerbating Factors
7) Associated Symptoms

2

What is a primary headache?

A headache that is idiopathic — occurring for no obvious reason, and not the result of any underlying disease or process

3

What is a secondary headache?

A headache that arises from an underlying structural, systemic, or infectious cause

4

What are the different types of primary headaches?

1) Migraine
2) Tension
3) Cluster
4) Medication Rebound
5) Chronic Daily Headache

5

What are three potential causes of a secondary headache?

1) Meningitis
2) Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
3) Mass Lesion

6

Characteristics of a Migraine

-Unilateral
-Throbbing or aching
-Peaks within 1-2 hours but can last 4-72 hours
-More common in women
-Associated Symptoms include nausea & vomiting
-Prodrome
-Triggered by missing meals, menses, birth control, stress, food

7

Characteristics of a Tension Headache

-Adulthood
-Bilateral or Unilateral
-Band-like, constricting & non-throbbing
-Gradual onset & lasts hours to days
-Photophobia & Phonophobia maybe, but NO nausea
-NO prodrome
-Triggered by stress, anger, and teeth grinding

8

Characteristics of a Cluster Headache

-Unilateral & retro-orbital
-Intense burning, searing, knife-like
-Abrupt onset that peaks in minutes
-Lasts several nights for several days and then gone
-More common in men
-Associated symptoms: increased tearing & nasal discharge

9

Characteristics of a Medication Rebound Headache

-Diffuse
-Dull or Throbbing
-Onset hours or days after last dose & lasts hours
-Seen in patients taking daily analgesics w/ abrupt cessation

10

Red Flag Symptoms with Headaches

-Progressively frequent or severe
-Sudden onset- "Thunderclap"
-"Worst headache of my life"
-New onset after 50 years old
-Aggravated or relieved by a change in position
-Precipitated by the Valsalva maneuver
-Associated with fever, night sweats, or weight loss
-Hx of cancer, HIV infection, or pregnancy
-Recent trauma
-Associated papilledema, neck stiffness, or focal deficit

11

What should you consider if headache is severe and of sudden onset?

SAH or Meningitis

12

What is concerning of a headache that is new, persisting, & progressively severe?

Raises concern for tumor, abscess, or mass lesion

13

What types of headaches are unilateral?

Migraine & Cluster

14

What type of headache often arises in the temporal area?

Tension

15

What type of headache is often retro-orbital?

Cluster

16

What type of headache has a prodrome?

Migraine

17

Why is exacerbation of a headache with the Valsalva maneuver concerning?

May increase pain from acute sinusitis or mass lesion & ICP

18

What are important considerations in head trauma?

-LOC
-Mechanism of Injury
-Level of Consciousness
-Time of Injury
-Amnesia
-Headache
-Vision changes
-Bleeding from ears, nose, mouth, eyes

19

Concussion

Disturbance in brain function caused by a direct or indirect force to the head, resulting in a constellation of symptoms that does not necessitate LOC

20

Symptoms suspicious for concussion

-Headache
-Unsteadiness
-Impaired brain function or confusion
-Abnormal behavior

21

What is the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2)?

Pre-season cognitive screening to be compared to post-injury; if athlete is not back to baseline, no participation

22

Symptoms of Hyperthyroid

-Nervousness
-Weight Loss
-Excessive sweating/ heat intolerance
-Warm, smooth, moist skin
-Grave's Disease
-Tachycardia

23

Symptoms of Hypothyroid

-Fatigue, Lethargy
-Modest weight gain
-Dry coarse skin
-Cold intolerance
-Swelling of face, hands, and legs
-Bradycardia
-Impaired memory

24

Conductive Hearing Loss

Problems with the external or middle ear

25

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Problems with the inner ear, cochlear nerve, or its connections to the brain

26

Difficulty understanding speech & worse hearing in noisy enviornment

Sensorineural

27

Noisy environment improves hearing

Conductive

28

Medications that affect hearing

-aminoglycosides
-aspirin
-NSAIDs
-quinine
-furosemide

29

Vertigo

Perception of spinning caused by problems in the labyrinths of the inner ear, peripheral lesion of CN VIII, or central lesions of CN VIII

30

Sutures

Membranous tissue spaces that separate the bones of the skull