Exam #5: Vascular & Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

Clinical Medicine > Exam #5: Vascular & Lymphatic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #5: Vascular & Lymphatic System Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1

Who is William Garner Sutherland?

Founder of cranial osteopathy

2

What is the best non-invasive way to visualize the left atrium?

Echocardiogram

3

What does abnormally elevated pressure in the left atrium lead to?

Pulmonary HTN

4

What best non-invasive way to visualize the aortic valve?

Echocardiogram

5

What is the best diagnostic tool to visualize the patency of the coronary arteries?

Coronary angiogram

6

What can inappropriate use of carotid sinus massage lead to?

Carotid Sinus Syncope

7

What can cartoid sinus massage be used as an intervention for?

SVT

*****Note that this is no longer considered an appropriate first line intervention.

8

What is the Allen's Test?

This is a test that MUST be done prior to RADIAL ARTERY CATHETERIZATION
- Occlude radial & ulnar arteries
- Release one artery & visualize blood flow to the hand
- Repeat with other artery

*****Normal is re-establishment of circulation by 3-5 or 4-5 seconds.

9

Where should the patients hand be when evaluating capillary refill?

Above the heart

10

What is "normal" when checking capillary refill?

11

How do you evaluate a patient for JVD?

1) Place patient in examine position: head of bed elevated at 45 degree angle and turned to the right
2) Identify top of venous pulsation in neck (JVP)
3) Identify sternum
4) Measure distance between top of pulsation and sternum

*****Measured in centimeters

12

What is a normal measurement when examining for JVD?

4 cm or less

13

What is an abnormal measurement when evaluating for JVD? What is this a possible indication of?

1) Right-sided Heart Failure (most common)
2) Increased Right Atrial Pressure
3) Constrictive Pericarditis
4) Tricuspid stenosis
5) Superior Vena Cava Obstruction
6) Valsalva phenomenon (laughing, coughing)

14

On auscultation of the lungs, you hear crackles. What is this an indication of?

Fluid leaking out of the circulation

15

On auscultation of the lungs, you hear a consolidation. What is this an indication of?

Lymphatic overload

16

You are preparing to start a central line in the patient's femoral vein. How do you remember the anatomic arrangement of the femoral sheath?

NAVEL--From lateral to medial:
- Nerve
- Artery
- Vein
- "Empty"
- Lymphatics

17

What are two signs of a DVT?

1) Homan's sign
2) Increased calf diameter

18

What is a positive homan's sign?

Positive test= pain in the calf on forceful and abrupt dorsiflexion of the patient's foot at the ankle while the knee is extended

19

What causes vericose veins?

Dysfunctional valves

20

What is superficial thrombophelbitis?

A thrombosis and inflammation of superficial veins which presents as a painful induration with erythema, often in a linear or branching configuration forming cords

21

What is Trendelenburg Test?

1) With patient supine, flex leg at hip & elevate leg to empty veins
2) Place superficial tourniquet around thigh to occlude superficial veins
3) Stand patient up

*****Normal= filling from below within 3-5 seconds
*****Abnormal= filling from below due to incompetent valves in DEEP COMMUNICTING VEINS

4) If after 20 seconds no filling, remove tourniquet

*****Sudden filling= incompetent SUPERFICIAL VEINS

22

What causes the dark discoloration that is seen with LE edema?

Hemosiderin staining

23

What is lymphangitis?

Inflammation or an infection of the lymphatic channels that occurs as a result of infection at a site distal to the channel

*****i.e. red streaks in the skin

24

What is lymphadenopathy?

Enlargement of the lymph nodes

25

What is lymphadedema?

Edematous swelling due to excess accumulation of lymph fluid in tissues

26

Describe the results of a normal lymph node examination.

Non-palpable nodes or very small nodes

27

Describe the results of an abnormal lymph node examination.

Palpable, shotty (like buck-shot), or tender lymph nodes

28

Where is the occipital node?

Base of the skull

29

Where is the posterior auricular node?

Over the mastoid process

30

Where is the periauricular node?

In front of the ear