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Flashcards in Exam 2 Review Deck (99)
1

The technique of ___________ uses the inherent rotation of atoms with odd-numbered atomic weights. A powerful magnetic field aligns the axes of rotation, which release electromagnetic energy as they relax. This technique has good _________ resolution.

MRI; spatial?

2

By using the ________ approach, researchers demonstrated that mice lacking the gene for _________ receptors did not respond to cocaine as reinforcement.

gene-knockout approach; dopamine

3

The method of recording brain activity that measures changes in hemoglobin molecules as they release oxygen in active brain areas is _______.

fMRI

4

Paul Broca discovered that loss of speech was frequently correlated with brain damage in the _______.

left frontal lobe

5

Different intensities and durations of magnetic fields can be used either to ________ or to __________ localized brain areas.

stimulate; inactivate

6

x-rays used to show brain structure

CAT scans

7

method of temporarily inactivating an area

intense, prolonged magnetic fields

8

method of stimulating a brain area

brief, moderate intensity magnetic fields

9

based on radioactive chemicals in most-active areas

PET scans

10

based on hemoglobin molecules releasing oxygen

fMRI

11

cell bodies of sensory neurons

dorsal root ganglia

12

exit through the ventral side of the spinal cord

motor axons

13

"flight or fight" system

sympathetic nervous system

14

contains "vital nuclei"

medulla

15

site of axons crossing to other side

pons

16

site of tectum and tegmentum

midbrain

17

relays info to cerbral cortex

thalamus

18

specializes in motivated behaviors, controls pituitary

hypothalamus

19

deals with movement, memory, emotional expression

basal ganglia

20

primary visual cortex

occipital lobe

21

primary audio cortex

temporal lobe

22

primary somatosensory cortex

parietal lobe

23

contains primary motor cortex

frontal lobe

24

Which is true concerning the spinal cord?
a. sensory neurons enter on the ventral side; motor neurons ext on the dorsal side
b. cell bodies of sensory neurons lie outside the CNS in the dorsal root ganglia
c. cell bodies of motor neurons lie outside the CNS in the ventral root ganglia
d. all of the above

cell bodies of sensory neurons lie outside the CNS in the dorsal root ganglia

25

The parasympathetic nervous system

is an energy-conserving system

26

Concerning the cranial nerves, nuclei for the first four nerves enter the _______ and ________; nuclei for the rest are in the medulla and pons

forebrain; midbrain

27

The hindbrain contains the ________________ and ______________.

reticular formation and raphe system

28

The medulla contains nuclei that control ___________

vital functions

29

The cerebellum contributes to

the control of movement, shifting of attention, and timing

30

The components of the midbrain include
a. the superior and inferior colliculi in the tectum, involved in sensory processing
b. the tegmentum, containing nuclei of the third and fourth cranial nerves, part of the reticular formation, and pathways connecting higher and lower structures
c. the substantia nigra, origin of a dopamine-containing pathway that deteriorates in Parkinson's disease
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

31

The limbic system is a _____________________ that are important for motivated and emotional behaviors

is a set of interlinked structures

32

The hypothalamus is important for

motivated behaviors and hormonal control

33

The basal ganglia are composed primarily of the

caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus

34

Deterioration of the basal ganglia is associated with

Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and impaired movement

35

The hippocampus
a. controls breathing, heart rate, and other vital reflexes
b. provides the major control for the pituitary gland
c. is part of the basal ganglia
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

36

The thalamus contains

nuclei that project to particular areas of cerebral cortex

37

Cerebrospinal fluid
a. is formed by cells lining the four ventricles
b. flows from the later ventricles to the third and fourth ventricles, and from there either to the central canal of the spinal cord or to the space between the brain and the meninges, where it is absorbed into the blood vessels
c. cushions the brain and provides buoyancy
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

38

The laminae of the cortex consist of up to _______ layers, which vary in _______ across the various brain areas

six; thickness

39

Which of the following is true of cortical columns?
a. columns run parallel to the laminae, across the surface of the cortex
b. there are 6 columns in the human brain, and only one or two in other mammals
c. cells within a column have similar response properties
d. the properties of cells within a column change systematically from top to bottom; cells at the top may respond to one stimulus, while those at the bottom respond to a different one

c. cells within a column have similar response properties

40

Which is true of the occipital lobe?
a. it is located at the posterior end of the cortex and contains the primary visual cortex
b. it is located at the sides of the brain and is concerned mostly with perception of complex visual patterns
c.is located immediately behind the central sulcus and contains the postcentral gyrus
d. located at the top of the brain and contributes to somatosensory processing

a. it is located at the posterior end of the cortex and contains the primary visual cortex

41

Which is true of the parietal lobe?
a. it contains the primary receiving area for axons carrying touch sensations and other skin and muscle info
b. it has 4 bands on the postcentral gyrus that receive light-touch, deep-pressure, or both
c. it contributes to our sense of our body in space, relative to visual and auditory stimuli
d. all of the above are true

d. all of the above are true

42

The temporal lobe is involved in

some complex aspects of visual processing as well as auditory processing

43

Damage to the frontal lobe may cause

losses of initiative and of social inhibitions and produce difficulties with delayed response tasks

44

are synchronized waves of activity (30 to 80 per second) in various brain areas, which may reflect binding of sensory aspects into a unified perception

gamma waves

45

CAT scans use x-rays to describe ________ ________

brain structure

46

The two types of stroke are ___________ and ___________.

ischemia; hemorrhage

47

The area surrounding the direct damage from a stroke is called the

penumbra

48

Some potential means of lessening damage, if applied immediately after a stroke, are __________ and administration of __________ or ____________.

cooling the brain; cannabinoids; omega-3 fatty acids

49

____________ refers to the decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged. Two potential treatments for this condition are electrical stimulation of the _____________ and administration of _____ drugs during recovery

diaschisis; central thalamus; stimulant

50

Regrowth of axons in the central nervous system of mammals is impeded by ___________, the two sides pulling apart, and chemicals secreted by ______ that inhibit growth

scar tissue; glia

51

Visions has been partially restored in hamsters with severed optic nerves by building a ___________, which formed a path across a scar-filled gap

protein bridges

52

Denervation _______________ depends on increased receptors or efficacy of receptors

supersensitivity

53

Phantom limb sensations arise primarily because of ______________ of axons

collateral sprouting

54

consists of cerebral ventricles and spinal central canal

cavity of neural tube

55

discovered nerve growth factor

Rita Levi-Montaleini

56

programmed cell death

apoptosis

57

cell death due to injury or toxic chemical

necrosis

58

axons competing for synapses and survival

neural Darwinism

59

undifferentiated cells that can become neurons

stem cells

60

stroke by blood clot

ischemia

61

stroke caused by ruptured blood vessel

hemorrhagic

62

a cause of damage immediately after a stroke

overexcitatioin

63

decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons

diaschisis

64

The ________ arises from a pair of long thin lips that merge around a fluid-filled cavity

neural tube

65

The five major stages in the development of neurons, in order, are

proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelinaton, synaptogenesis

66

_________ and ___________ guide neuron migration

immunoglobulins and cytokines

67

Stem cells are

undifferentiated cells in the interior of the brain that generate daughter cells

68

When Paul Weiss grafted an extra leg onto a salamander

the extra leg moved in synchrony with the normal adjacent leg

69

Sperry's work with the eyes of newts led him to conclude that

axons follow a chemical trail that places them in the general vicinity of their target

70

TOPdv is a

protein that is more concentrated in neurons of the dorsal retina and the ventral tectum than in the ventral retina and dorsal tectum

71

Neural Dawinism proposes that

synapses form somewhat randomly at first; those that work best are kept, while the others degenerate

72

Nerve growth factor is important for

the survival and growth of sympathetic neurons

73

Apoptosis is

the "suicide program" of the cell

74

Massive cell death early in development is

a normal result of unsuccessful competition for synapses and growth factors

75

Mental retardation can be caused by _______ ___________ in infants

thyroid deficiency

76

Fetal alcohol syndrome results in

hyperactivity, impulsiveness, difficulty maintaining attention, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities

77

Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have greater risk for:

attention-deficit disorder
aggressive behavior
impaired memory and intelligence

78

Environmental enrichment produces

greater dendritic branching and a thicker cortex

79

Which of the following is true?
a. After practice of specific skills, connections relevant to those skills proliferate, while other retract
b. physical activity can improve learning and memory
c. exercise can decrease the rate of decline in brain volume and activity in older people
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

80

Which of the following is true?
a. professional musicians have a larger area in the right temporal lobe than do nonmusicians
b. exercise generates waste products that are harmful to neural survival
c. the occipital cortex in people who have been blind since infancy continues to be selective only to visual stimuli
d. all of the above are true

professional musicians have a larger area in the right temporal lobe than do nonmusicians

81

Which of the following is true?
a. the increase in representation of the left hand in the right postcentral gyrus of stringed instrument players is always beneficial
b. there was decreased thickness of grey matter in brain areas for hand control and vision in musicians, because those areas became totally devoted to auditory function
c. stressing a mother rat changes her behavior in ways that increase fearfullness in her offspring
d. none of the above

stressing a mother rat changes her behavior in ways that increase fearfulness in her offspring

82

The most common cause of brain damage in young adults is

a sharp blow to the head

83

Which of the following occurs in the penumbra around the area of direct damage from stroke?
a. Edema increases pressure on the brain and increases the probability of additional strokes
b. The combination of edema and impairment of the sodium-potassium pump results in glutamate release
c. Positive ions accumulate inside neurons, block metabolism in mitochondria and kill neurons
d. all of the above are true

d. all of the above are true

84

Damage from strokes may be minimized by

giving tissue plasminigen activator (tPA), if the stroke is due to ischemia

85

Stimulants administered after the first few days following a stroke improves recovery by reducing

diaschisis

86

Adequate regrowth of an axon does not occur of

the damaged axon is in the central nervous system of mammals

87

Research on regrowth of axons in mammals has shown that myelin in the ________, but not central, nervous system can help axons regenerate

peripheral

88

Sprouting
a. occurs only in response to traumatic brain damage
b. is always maladaptive, since the wrong axons make connections
c. may be adaptive if sprouts come from closely related axons
d. is enhanced by dopamine antagonists

may be adaptive if sprouts come from closely related axons

89

Denervation supersensitivity is the result of

an increased number of receptors on the postsynaptic cell and increased effectiveness of the receptors

90

After denervation of a monkey's arm 12 years earlier,

neurons that had previously responded to it became responsive to stimuli in the face

91

Research on recovery from brain damage has shown that recovery can occur when

an individual is forced to make full use of remaining capabilities

92

What are the two parts of the central nervous system?

spinal cord and brain

93

Together the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system make up the _________ nervous system.

peripheral

94

The parasympathetic nervous system has long __________ and short ________ axons.

preganglionic; postganglionic

95

The pons acts as a bridge between:

one side of the central nervous system to the other

96

The only area of the cerebral cortex known to receive input from ALL sensory modalities is the:

prefrontal cortex

97

When Sperry cut a newt's optic nerve and rotated the eye by 180 degrees, each axon:

regenerated to the area where it had originally been.

98

The function of neurotrophins is to:

promote survival of axons.

99

What brain abnormalities are found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?

short dendrites with few branches