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Flashcards in Module 8.3 Deck (14)

What happens to the movement of people with Parkinson's disease?

rigid, muscle tremors, slow movements and trouble initiating physical activity


What are other symptoms of Parkinson's disease?

difficulty initiating physical activity, slow on cognitive tasks, and difficulty with memory and reasoning


What happens in the brains of people with Parkinson's?

There is a gradual progressive death of neurons, especially in the substantia nigra, which leads to decrease in dopamine.


Describe the evidence for a genetic predisposition for Parkinson's disease.

In a study with twins, if one twin got Parkinson's disease before 50, the other twin was almost certain to get it too.


Why might someone trying to avoid Parkinson's stay away from pesticides and start smoking and drinking coffee? Explain the effects of these substances.

You may be more likely to develop Parkinson's disease after being exposed to some pesticides and smokers and coffee drinkers are less likely to develop Parkinson's.


What is the role of a-synuclein in causing damage to dopaminergic neurons?

It clots into clusters that damage neurons containing dopamine.


What does L-dopa do?

It gets into the brain, where neurons convert it to dopamine


What are the problems with taking L-dopa.

it doesn't work for some patients, it produces unpleasant side effects, and it doesn't prevent the continued loss of neurons


What evidence suggest that brain grafts might be a potentially effective treatment for Parkinson's?

The transplanted tissue releases neurotrophins that stimulate axon and dendrite growth in the recipient's brain.


What's the problem with the toxic exposure hypothesis?



Which movement and psychological problems are associated with Huntington's disease?

Tremors, twitches, and jerks; depression, sleep disorders, memory impairment, anxiety, delusions, and drug and alcohol abuse


Which neurons degenerate in Huntington's disease?

***postsynaptic neurons of the basal ganglia


Discuss the role of genetics in Huntington's disease.

If your mother or father has Huntington's, there is a 50% chance you will develop the disease.


Discuss two potential treatments that have shown promise in animal models.

Two potential treatments are drugs that block the glutamate chains from clustering and one that interferes with the RNA that enables expression of the huntington gene.