Flashcards in Module 8.2 Deck (24)
What types of movements is the primary motor cortex necessary for?
What is the function of mirror neurons?
they allow people to imitate and observe others
To what two processes do neurons in the posterior parietal cortex respond?
Planning movements and keeping track of the position of the body relative to the world
What is the result of damage to the posterior parietal cortex?
People with damage here can describe accurately what they see, but they have trouble converting perception into action
Describe role of prefrontal cortex
responds to light, noises, and other signals for a movement and plans movements according to their probable outcomes
Describe role of premotor cortex
preparations for movement
Describe role of supplementary motor cortex
plans and organizes a rapid sequence of movements in a particular order
Where does the lateral corticospinal tract begin?
primary motor cortex
Where does the lateral corticospinal tract switch sides?
the bulges of the medulla (pyramids)
Where does the medial corticospinal tract originate?
What movements are controlled by the lateral corticospinal tract?
movement of the arm muscles
What movements are controlled by the medial corticospinal tract?
movement of the muscles of the neck, shoulders, and trunk
What happens to the primary motor cortex during the first year of life?
How is the primary motor cortex affected by cerebral palsy?
What kinds of tasks are most impaired by damage to the cerebellum?
rapid movements that require accurate aim and timing
What are saccades?
ballistic eye movements from one fixed point to another
Describe the effect of cerebellar damage on the control of saccades.
Someone with cerebellar damage has difficult programming the angle and distance of eye movements.
Why might a police officer use a finger-to-nose test to check for intoxication?
The cerebellum is used to complete the finger-to-nose test and the one of the first brain areas that alcohol affects is the cerebellum.
Describe the relationship between Purkinje cells and parallel fibers.
The parallel fibers are perpendicular to the planes of the Purkinje cells
What structures comprise the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
Where does the input in the basal ganglia come from?
Where does the output in the basal ganglia go?
globus pallidus (and then to the thalamus)
Describe how the basal ganglia select movements.
by ceasing to inhibit it