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Flashcards in Module 9.3 Deck (15)

What was probably the original function of sleep?

to save energy


How does sleep conserve energy?

Sleep conserves energy during inefficient times, when activity would do more harm than good.


What adaptations of sleep patterns are seen in dolphins and migratory birds?

Dolphins only sleep on one side of their brain at a time. Migratory birds decrease the needs to sleep during migration.


What is the effect of sleep deprivation on GABA? How can this affect one's ability to concentrate?

GABA accumulates in the neurons during sleep deprivation. This causes an increase in GABA release during wakefulness which impairs concentration.


Describe the effects of sleep deprivation in humans and rats.

Humans show deficits on memory tasks, have dizziness, tremors, hallucinations, depression, irritability, and decreased alertness. Sleep deprived mice show impairments in their ability to alter synaptic activity.


How does sleep affect learning?

It increases the ability to memorize information


What is the relationship between sleep spindles, learning and nonverbal IQ?

Sleep spindles increase after new learning. The amount of sleep spindle activity correlates more than .7 with nonverbal tests of IQ.


What is the relationship between percentage of time in REM and total sleep time?

The more a person sleeps, the more REM they have.


To what kind of learning does REM sleep contribute?

motor skills


What kind of learning does NREM sleep contribute?

verbal learning


What is the activation-synthesis hypothesis?

The idea that a dream represents the brain's effort to make sense of sparce and distorted information


What evidence is there for the activation-synthesis hypothesis?

When we sleep, we are lying flat and this causes our brain to interpret it as flying or falling. That's why we often have dreams about the two.


Name three cortical areas that are suppressed during dreams. What are the effects of these suppressions?

The primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and the primary visual and audio cortex are suppressed during dreams. This causes us to forget most dreams and lose track of what has been happening within a dream.


Name two cortical areas that are active during dreams. What would they contribute to dreams?

The visual cortex outside V1 and the inferior parietal cortex are active during dreams. These areas are responsible for the visual imagery in dreams.


Which subcortical areas are active during dreams? What do these areas contribute?

The hypothalamus, amygdala, and other areas important for emotions and motivations are active during dreams. These areas contribute to the strong emotional content of dreams.