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Flashcards in Module 2.1 Deck (68)
1

What did Ramon y Cajal demonstrate?

That there are spaces between each neuron in our brains. This showed him that they are made up of individual cells.

2

List the major structures of animal cells.

Membrane
Nucleus
Mitochondrion
Ribosomes

3

What is the main function of the membrane?

to allow certain things into the cell and to keep others out

4

What is the main function of the nucleus?

houses chromosomes

5

What is the main function of the mitochondrion?

Provides energy for the cell

6

What is the main function of ribosomes?

creates proteins

7

What are the main subdivisions of the neuron?

Dendrites
Axon
Presynaptic terminal
Soma (cell body)

8

What is the main function of dendrites?

receive info from other neurons

9

What is the main function of the soma?

house cell structures

10

What is the main function of axons?

sends messages to other neurons

11

What is the main function of the presynaptic terminal?

where axon releases chemical called neurotransmitters

12

What is the myelin sheath?

An insulation that surrounds some axons made of fats/proteins

13

What is the function of the presynaptic terminal (end bulb)?

to receive and send chemicals between neurons

14

What do the terms afferent and efferent mean?

Afferent means eceive info and efferent means send info

15

Can an axon be both afferent and efferent? Explain.

Yes it can because it is afferent to one structure (t receives info from it) and efferent to a different structure (because it send info to it).

16

What is an interneuron or intrinsic neuron?

A neuron whose dendrites and axons are completely enclosed in one structure

17

How do glial cells differ from neurons?

Glial cells divide like other body cells, while neurons are very limited in division. Also, they are smaller than neurons in size and there are more of them.

18

What are four functions of glia?

1. Get rid of waste
2. Support neurons
3. Supply nutrients
4. Separate neurons from each other

19

What are two functions of astrocytes?

1. Provide nutrients to nervous tissue
2. Synchronize neuron activity

20

What do microglia do?

Get rid of wastes and protect against viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms (brain's immune system)

21

What two kinds of glia form myelin sheaths?

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

22

What is the function of radial glia?

To guide migration and growth during development

23

Neurons look like

trees

24

The ______ _________ are doors that let things in and out or keep things out in the cell membrane.

protein channels

25

________ are the powerhouses of the cell

Mitochondria

26

What does SAME mean?

Sensory (neurons) are afferent. Motor (neurons) are efferent.

27

What are the two types of cells in the nervous system?

neurons and glia

28

fat surrounding cell; controls movement in and out of the cell

membrane

29

contains DNA (genes)

nucleus

30

provides energy using glucose, oxygen

mitochondria

31

makes and transports proteins

ribosomes/endoplasmic reticulum

32

undeveloped neurons capable of dividing

stem cells

33

Most brain cancer are what type of cells?

glia cells

34

these send and receive info to other neurons using electrochemical impulses

neurons

35

these type of cells are for chemical transfer and support

glia cells

36

What are the two types of cells in the NS?

neurons and glia cells

37

fat surrounding cell; controls movement in and out of the cell

membrane

38

contains DNA (genes)

nucleus

39

provides energy using glucose, oxygen

mitochondria

40

makes and transports proteins

ribosomes/endoplasmic reticulum

41

receives info from other neurons

dendrites

42

sends info to other neuron

axon

43

insulation made of fats/proteins, covers some axons

myelin sheath

44

the spaces in between sections of sheath

nodes of ranvier

45

where axon releases neurotransmitter

presynaptic terminal (end bulb)

46

to bring info in

afferent

47

to bring info out

efferent

48

builds myelin around axons

oligodendrocytes

49

guide migration and growth during development; convert to neurons and glia after development

radial glia

50

the brain's immune system

microglia

51

undeveloped (undifferentiated) neurons capable of dividing

stem cells

52

__________ are the powerhouses of the cell.

Mitochondria

53

Most brain cancers are ____ cells.

glia

54

tightly packed cells that keep most bacteria and viruses out of brain; keeps most chemicals out of the vertebrate brain

blood-brain barrier

55

pumps chemicals across blood-brain barrier

active transport system

56

caused by brain damage bc of lack of B1 (thiamine) over time

Korsakoff's syndrom

57

During the resting potential, the inside of a neuron is _____

negative

58

At rest, Na+ is more concentrated _____.

outside

59

At rest, Cl- is more concentrated ______.

outside

60

At rest, K+ is more concentrated _____

inside

61

a network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations

endoplasmic reticulum

62

the point from which the axon releases chemicals that cross through the junction between one neuron and the next

presynaptic terminal

63

Every sensory neuron is an _______ to the rest of the nervous system , and every motor neuron is an _____ from the nervous system.

afferent; efferent

64

What are the cells called that function as the brain's immune system?

microglia

65

a protein-mediated process that expands energy to pump chemicals from the blood into the brain

active transport

66

Which chemicals cross the blood-brain barrier passively?

small, uncharged molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the blood-brain barrier passively. So do chemicals that dissolve in fats of the membrane.

67

Which chemicals pass the blood-brain barrier by active transport?

glucose, amino acids, purines, choline, certain vitamins, and a few hormones

68

Vertebrate neurons rely almost completely on _____ for nutrition.

glucose