Flashcards in Module 12.2 Deck (22)
What are the effects of stimulation of the amygdala on aggressive behavior?
primes for attack
Which area of the amygdala is especially important for the increased aggressive behavior (primes for attack) effect?
Describe the evidence for heritability of violence in adulthood, but not in childhood.
Genetic influence for violence is small, unless the child is raised in an unstable home or is abused.
What environmental risk factor is compounded with complications during pregnancy in determining predisposition toward violence?
How strong is the correlation between testosterone and aggressive behavior? By what effect might testosterone promote aggression?
The correlation between testosterone and aggressive behavior is very strong. Men who have the highest rates of testosterone, have the highest rates of aggression.
What neurotransmitter abnormality is associated with aggressive behavior? How can it be measured?
Low serotonin release; it can be measured by the concentration of 5-HIAA
Describe the complication concerning the timing of serotonin release relative to aggression. What are two possible explanations?
The brain releases serotinin during aggressive behavior. A low level of serotonin activity prior to aggravation magnifies the response when serotonin is suddenly released at the start of an aggressive encounter. One explanation is that serotonin inhibits a variety of impulses.
Describe how different areas of the nucleus accumbens might influence approach or avoidance.
Cells toward one end are more important for approach responses and cells toward he other end are tuned for avoidance.
What is a key brain area for learned fears?
What kind of sensory input does the amygdala receive?
pain fibers, visual and auditory
What are the main output connections of the amygdala? What does each control?
Hypothalamus: autonomic fear responses
Prefrontal cortex: approach and avoidance responses
Midbrain (pons): control startle reflexes
What are the usual effects of amygdala damage?
interferes with the learning of fear responses
What is Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
a condition that occurs after damage to the amygdala where monkeys become less fearful
How does the human amygdala respond to photos depicting various emotions?
The amygdala is activated when looking at photos of different emotions. Ir is more active when viewing fearful or angry expressions than happy ones.
Describe how emotions are affected by Urbach-Weithe disease.
Their amygdala is damaged and they are impaired at processing emotional info when the signals are subtle or ambiguous.
Why do people with amygdala damage fail to identify fearful expressions in photos?
They aren't capable of recognizing fear because they tend to not pay attention to a people's eyes, which is where fear is shown the most on the face.
Name one excitatory and one inhibitory neurotransmitter in the amygdala that have been associated with the control of anxiety.
Main excitatory: CCK
Main inhibitory: GABA
What is the most common drug to reduce anxiety?
Describe how a benzodiazepine works on a GABA receptor.
It binds to a GABA receptor and twists the receptor so that the GABA binds more easily. It facilitates the binding of GABA to GABA-A receptors.
What endogenous chemical affects benodiazepine receptors?
What are the effect of alcohol on GABA-A receptors?
Alcohol promotes the flow of chloride ions throught the GABA-A receptor complex