(F) Rates and Ratio Flashcards

1
Q

How would we know if a person is healthy or not?

A
• History
• Physical/Laboratory examination
2
Q

How would we say if a country/community is healthy?

A
• Using various indices (mortality rates, morbidity rates, fertility rates)
• Indices of health to be checked
3
Q

Tools for Epidemeiology

absolute numbers of a population or any demographic event occurring over a specified period, area, and time

A

Counts

4
Q

Tools for Epidemeiology

A single number that represents the relative size of two numbers

A

Ratio

5
Q

in this tool of epidemiology you have numerator and denominator (2 numbers relating w/ each other)

A

Ratio

6
Q

Tool of Epidemiology

describe the relationship between two (2) numerical quantities or measures of events

without taking particular consideration of their entity

A

Ratio

7
Q

Tool of Epidemiology

These quantities need not necessarily represent the same entities

A

Ratio

unit of measure must be the same for both numerator and denominator of the ratio

8
Q

What tool of epideiomology?

Doctor-Patient Ratio

A

Ratio

nasa tanong na nga bobo kaba

9
Q

Tool of Epidemiology

Special type of ratio in which the numerator is part of the denominator

A

Proportion

10
Q

T or F

Proportions are all ratios but not all ratios are proportions

A

True

11
Q

Tool of Epidemiology

Measures the amount of change (no. of new events) in a given period of time

A

Rates

12
Q

Tool of Epidemiology - T or F

In Vital Statistics, a rate shows the relationship between a vital event and those unexposed persons to the occurrence of said event, within a given area and during a specified unit of time.

A

F

EXPOSED PERSONS

13
Q

Tool of Epidemiology - T or F

It is evident that the persons experiencing the event (the numerator) must come from the total population exposed to the risk of same event (the denominator).

A

T

14
Q

Type of Rates

If the actual number of events is related to the whole population.

A

Crude Rate

Denominator is the whole population

15
Q

Types of Rate

If the events are related to specific subgroups of the population

A

Specific Rate

16
Q

Type of Rates

Fictitious summary rates constructed to permit fair comparison between population groups differing in some important characteristic

A

17
Q

what type of rate is used when comparing a devloping country to a develop one, the aim is to provide a EQUAL FOOTING

A

18
Q

Fertility Rates

Measures how fast the population increases through the process of natality (birth)

A

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

19
Q

Fertility Rates

measure of one characteristic of the natural growth or increase of a population

A

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

20
Q

Fertility Rates

Relates the number of live births, which occurred in a specified population during a specified time interval, to the total population.

A

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

21
Q

IF u see this card

A

review the formula for crude rate

Total no. of live births in a given year/Total population as of July 1 (same yr)

22
Q

Crude Birth Rate

Since the population size changes during the year, what population are used in the denominator?

A

midyear population→ July 1

23
Q

Fertility Rate

More specific as this studies only the subgroup which in a fertility age group – actually giving birth in the women reproductive group

A

General Fertility Rate (GFR)

24
Q

Fertility Rate

more appropriate measure of fertility would be one which relates the number of births to the segment of the population who is actually at risk of giving births

A

General Fertility Rate (GFR)

25
Q

review the formula for General Fertility Rate

A

ge

No. of reported live births/midyear population of women in the reproductive years (15-44 or 49 y.o.)

26
Q

Enumerate the Fertility Rates

A
1. Crude Birth Rate
2. General Fertility Rate
3. Age-Specific Birth Rates
4. Child Women Ratio
27
Q

if u see this card

A

review the formula for age-specific birth rates and Child women ratio

age-specific birth rates= births registered during year (specified age interval of women)/mid year population of women in same age group

child-women ratio= no. of <5y.o./midyear population of women 15-44

28
Q

What are the 2 mearuse for morbiditiy rates?

A
• Measure of Incidence
• Measures of Prevalence
29
Q

when it is measure of incidence under morbidity, what study it encompasses and what type are the cases

A

Cohort study, and new cases

30
Q

when it is measure of Prevalence under morbidity, what study it encompasses and what type are the cases

A

Cross-sectional study, and existing cases

31
Q

Morbidity Rates

Measures the number of new cases developing during a period of time.

A

Incidence

32
Q

Morbidity Rates

new cases come from a population which is disease-free at the beginning of an observation period. This disease=free population is the population at risk.

A

Incidence

33
Q

Morbidity Rates

a measure of the average risk or the average probability of developing an illness in a disease-free individual

A

Cumulative Incidence

34
Q

study the formula for cumulative incidence

A

ge

No. of new case of a disease during a specified time/No. of disease-free individual at the beginning of the period

35
Q

Morbidity Rates - Cumulative Incidence

The numerator generally refers to the

A

first occurrence of the illness

36
Q

Morbidity rate, CI - T or F

The period of observation should be explicitly stated since the longer the observation period, the higher the CI will be

A

True

37
Q

Morbidity Rate

a special kind of Cumulative Incidence where the period of observation is limited as in an epidemic.

A

Attack Rate

38
Q

Morbidity Rate, CI - T or F

Requires that all non cases be followed up for the entire duration of the follow up period

A

True

diko magets sensha, pero t daw sabi ni maam

39
Q

Morbidity Rate, CI - T or F

Conditional on dying first of other diseases during the observation period

A

F - NOT DYING FIRST

40
Q

Morbidity Rate

an estimate of the average rate of disease occurrence in a population.

A

Incidence Density (ID) or Incidence Rate (IR)

41
Q

Morbidity Rate

This is also called FORCE OF MORBIDITY or HAZARD RATE.

A

Incidence Density (ID) or Incidence Rate (IR)

42
Q

Morbidirt Rate

The period of observation for the entire group may not be explicit BUT the time of follow-up for each individual is taken into consideration in the denominator which is measured in PERSON-TIME

A

Incidence Density or Incidence Rate

43
Q

ID or IR

observation is the sum of the period of observation for each individual in the cohort.

A

Person- Time

44
Q

review the illustration for person time

A

ge

45
Q

Morbidity Rate, IR or ID - T or F

SOMETIMES the length of observation may not be known for each subject as when following up big population groups

A

True

46
Q

Morbidity Rate, IR or ID - T or F

Person-time of observation is computed as the product of the average sample size and the length of follow-up

A

F - POPULATION SIZE

check the illustration para mas magets

47
Q

what is the assumption that is wanted in ID or IR

A

that there is no drastic change in the size and structure of the population.

48
Q

Morbidity Rate

Measures the number of existing cases at a point in time relative to a population at the time.

A

Prevalence

49
Q

Morbifity Rate, Prevalence

Particular point in time

A

Point Prevalence

50
Q

Morbifity Rate, Prevalence

This means the probability of an individual being a case at a point in time, not of developing disease.

A

Point Prevalence

51
Q

Morbifity Rate, Prevalence

This measure is generally used in health planning to quantify needs or demands for services.

A

Point Prevalence

52
Q

review the steps for point prevalence

A

go bro

no. of existing cases at a point in time/total population at that point in time

53
Q

what can be also measured in Point prevalence?

A

Residuals of ilnesses

54
Q

Morbidity Rate, Prevalence

Segment in time

A

Period Prevalence

55
Q

Morbidity Rates, Prevalence

This combines the prevalence at the beginning of a period (point prevalence) plus all the cases that will develop during the period (cumulative incidence).

A

Period Prevalence

56
Q

Relationship of Incidence and Prevalence

T or F
All cases start at Prevalence

A

F - starts at INCIDENCE

57
Q

what is the state when a population is stable in its size and structure and if both the prevalence and incidence rate remains constant

A

58
Q

Period Prevalence: Relationship of Incidence and Prevalence

In this state, the prevalence of disease varies directly with the incidence rate and the mean duration of the disease.

A

59
Q

review the concept for the relationship of incidence and prevalence

A

i will not include the example here :P

60
Q

Incidence or Prevalence

Today you had a acute nasophayngitis, then you get well

A

Incidence ka

61
Q

Incidence or Prevalence

After a month or 3 you had a cold again, but you have the history of acute nasopharyngitis

A

You are now a Prevalence

62
Q

Mortality Rate

measures the decrease in population size due to death

A

Crude Death Rate

63
Q

when does the Crude Death Rate computed?

A

Anually for a particular population

64
Q

what does the Crude Death Rate measures?

A

force of mortality or estimates the probability of dying

soon kasama tayo jan #hopeful

65
Q

what does the Crude Death Reate means summarizes??

A

age-specific death rates

kasi na memeasrue din nila population, they can manipulate the date to see the specific age

66
Q

in 2022, wat was the death rate of PH??

A

5.6% per 1k ppl

67
Q

More specific than crude death rate; meant to finde the ILLNESS

A

Cause of Death Rates

68
Q

what is the numerator for Cause of Death rates??

A

number of deaths due to a particular cause

ex. kagat ng aso, ayan numerator

69
Q

what is the denominator for cause of deat rate

A

Total population

70
Q

other name for Cause of Death Rate??

A

Cause-Specific Death Rate

71
Q

what are the 2 exception for casue of death rate??

A

Infant Mortality Rate
Some Age-Sex Specific rates

72
Q

review the general formula for cause specific death rate

A

go on twink

number of deaths due to a particular cause/ midyear population size

73
Q

if u see this card

A

ure not blind

jk

74
Q

what rate is used as the basis for determining the ten leading causes of death in a specific population

A

Cause of Death Rates

75
Q

Counts only deaths which occurred among a particular subset of the population.

A

Specific Death Rates

76
Q

which death rates does this ex classify: Among females only (i.e. sex-specific death rate)

A

Specific Death Rates

77
Q

if u see this card,

A

review the general formula for specigic death rates

no. of deaths among specific population subgroup with the attribute interest/size of the population with the attribute

78
Q

PLEASE REVIEW THE Proportionate Mortality Rate/Ratio (PMR)

A

walang principle na binigay, go vover to my trans nalang

ALL AGES

no. of deaths caused by a certain disease/ total dead po’n

79
Q

Disadvatange of PMR - T or F

When an epidemic of a multiple disease occur, the total number of deaths is increased with a corresponding decrease in the PMR from other causes even if there may not have been any absolute decrease in the number of deaths from these other causes.

A

F - SINGLE DISEASE LANG P

80
Q

PMR, Advantage - T or F

Population data are not required in the computation of the rate

A

T

81
Q

PMR, Advantage - T or F

There are usually no problems of age classification, except at age 10 years and over

A

F - 50 years and over

82
Q

PMR, Advantage - T or F

The rate is generally stable and easy disturbed by poor quality of registration and age classificatio

A

F

“not disturbed even by poor quality of registration and age classification.”

83
Q

PMR, Advantage - T or F

Records, as data sources of PMR, are usually available from a large number of countries.

A

T

84
Q

what is the example of PMR sa lesson

A

Swaroop’s Index

85
Q

Swaroop’s Index is an example of?

A

Age PMR

86
Q

Rate that may be computed by cause, age, sex, occupation, etc

basically any

A

Proportionate Mortality Rate/Ratio (PMR)

87
Q

Ideally, identify the cases of a particular disease, then set a length of observation or follow-up period during which we observe how many of these cases will die.

A

Case Fatality Rate (CFR)

88
Q

TOF

The duration of the follow-up in CFR period is usually the duration of the clinical course of the disease during which the patient may die

A

True

want kasi nila malaman duration ng life bago mamatay HASFHSAFHASHW WTF

89
Q

if u see this card

A

Study the general formula for swaroops index and CFR

no of deaths/no of cases

90
Q

CFR indirectly measures the

A

“killing power” of the disease.

91
Q

TOF

The more fatal course of the disease, the lower is the CFR

A

F - Higher the CFR

92
Q

why CFR can be modified or affected?

A
• completeness of reporting cases as well as death
• Treatment and other procedures that can extend lives of those affected

some death are not reported, be cautious

93
Q

CFR, covid-19 = 1.47%
CFR, Malignant Neoplasm = 66%

A

Malignant Neoplasm since its higher okay? omkie

94
Q

Measures the risk of dying from causes associated with childbirth (and will include pregnancy, labor and puerperium)

A

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)

95
Q

review the formula for MMR

A

go on bb

bareback or backburner????

no. of deaths among woman/total no. of live births

96
Q

what cases can be included in MMR??

A

all diseases that AGGRAVATES the pregnancy

Ex: nasagasaan, no di pwede

97
Q

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) - T or F

The number of live births used in the denominator does not represent the entire population-at-risk of dying

A

T

98
Q

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) - T or F

The real population-at-risk of dying from maternal causes is the population of pregnant men (i.e., the number of pregnancies)

A

F - women

There is no registry for pregnant women

99
Q

in MMR why was the live birth has been used as denominator?

A

number is usually unknown, number of live births has been conventional and for practical measures.

100
Q

review the formula for Infant mortality RAte

A

ATE

deaths of <1/ total live births

101
Q

Classify what rate

Infant are observed up to 1 year, and if namatay during the observation, well kasama sila sa rate

A

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

102
Q

One of the most sensitive indices of the health conditions of the general population

A

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

103
Q

From Health Officer’s Point of View, low IMR suggests?

familiarize mo nalang, di kanaman si maam polly

A
• Sound infant and maternal nutrition program
• Satisfactory ante-and post-natal services
• Good disease control program
• Strict laws goveming the administration of health programs
104
Q

From Sanitarian’s Point of View, low IMR means:

A
• Good environmental sanitation
• Good water supply
• Adequate insect and vermin control
• Good housing facilities, etc
105
Q

From Social Worker’s Point of View, Low IMR means:

A
• Illegitimates are not neglected
• Female babies are equally welcome as male babies
• High standard of living
106
Q

The ideal denominator of IMR is the

A

population of infants

however, the number of live births is used as a substitute to this

107
Q

IMR - T or F

Relatively good data on the number of live births is a lot easier to obtain than good data on the population of infants.

A

True

108
Q

IMR - T or F

Difference in the way live birth is defined will not cause errors in the computation of IMR.

A

F - they will

109
Q

IMR - T or F

Campaigning for birth registration may lower IMR without really reducing the number of infant deaths.

A

True

cause mas malalaman yung true data

110
Q

One variation of IMR

A

Infant Death Rate (IDR),

111
Q

difference of IMR to IDR (infant death rate)

A

same numerator, but different denominators

112
Q

what are the number used in the denominator of IDR and IMR

A
• IDR - number of children under 1 year
• IMR - total reported live birth

AS DENOMINATOR

113
Q

IMR - T or F

Accurate data on the number of infants is difficult to obtain, thus, IMR is more commonly used than IDR.

A

True - diko alam bat true pero sure

114
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Reviewhin niyo lahat ng formula under this bahala kayo jan

A

115
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Deaths in the neonatal period are mostly due to prenatal causes, and are more difficult to reduce than the post-neonatal period.

A

Neonatal Mortality Rate (<28 days)

116
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Ex: Congenital Heart Disease – occurs in prenatal, causes death

A

Neonatal Mortality Rate (<28 days)

117
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

• Sometimes referred to as Late Infant Mortality Rate
• Death rate of infants from 28 days to under one year old.
• Due to environmental causes.
A

Post-Neonatal Death Rate

118
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Ex: baby crawled down and fell down the stars

A

Post-Neonatal Death Rate

119
Q

Neonatal Mortality Rate + Post-neonatal Mortality Rate =? what rate

A

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

120
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Also known as Fetal Death Ratio

A

Still Birth Rate

121
Q

In the computation of fetal deaths, what is the appropriate denominator?

A

number of conceptions and pregnancies* (and is indirectly obtained by adding all fetal deaths and live births)*

122
Q

Still Birth Rate - T or F

Since fetal deaths, especially early fetal deaths, are seldom reported, WHO recommends the use of live births only in the numerator of the rate.

A

F - Denominator

123
Q

Other IMR-Related Mortality Indicators

Period of delivery

A

Perinatal Mortality Rate

sorry beh diko rin alam pero sure

124
Q

Mandatory Reporting of Notifiable Diseases and Health Events of Public Health Concern Act

A

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 11332

125
Q

repealing for the purpose Act No. 3573, otherwise known as the “Law on Reporting of Communicable Diseases”

A

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 11332

126
Q

the law was approved on

AKSHUALLY, walang sinabi kung approved ba or effect of law hehi

A

April 26, 2019

127
Q

what category under RA 11332

Immediately Notifiable Diseases/Syndrome/Events and Conditions

A

Category I

128
Q

what category under RA 11332

Weekly Notifiable Disease or Syndrome

A

Category II

129
Q

Category I – Immediately Notifiable Diseases/Syndrome/Events and Conditions

Familiariza the disease

A
1. Acute Flaccid Paralysis
3. Anthrax
4. Human Avian Influenza
5. Measles
6. Meningococcal Disease
7. Neonatal tetanus
8. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
9. Rabies
10. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
11. Outbreaks
12. Clusters of diseases
13. Unusual diseases or threats
130
Q

Category II – Weekly Notifiable Disease or Syndrome

use this card to familiarize

A
1. Acute Bloody Diarrhea
2. Acute Encephalitis Syndrome
3. Acute Hemorrhagic Fever Syndrome
4. Acute Viral Hepatitis
5. Bacterial Meningitis
6. Cholera
7. Dengue
8. Diphtheria
9. Influenza-like Illness
10. Leptospirosis
11. Malaria
12. Non-neonatal tetanus
13. Pertussis
14. Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever
131
Q

RA 11332

T or F

There is also reporting for Non-communicable, Fireworks Injury surveillance, and accident caused by falling down the stairs

A

F - Non communicable Disease Reporting and Fireworks Injury Surveillance
lang

132
Q

A doctor should know how to fill up

A

a Death Certificate

sila lang authorize kasi eh <3

133
Q

Death Certificate

used for statistics; it will be submitted as leading cause of death

A

Underlying cause

134
Q

Death Certificate

where the chain of events leading to death is written

A

Part 1

135
Q

Death Certificate

what are the causes under PART 1

A
• Immediate Cause
• Antecedent Cause
• Underlyinf Cause
136
Q

Death Certificate

where all other significant diseases, conditions or injuries are written (contributory causes).

A

Part 2

137
Q

Death Certificate

The presence of these conditions contributed to death but did not result in the underlying cause of death written in Part 1.

A

Part 2

138
Q

Importance of Correct entry - T or F

Mortality statistics is tabulated based on the underlying cause of death documented on the medical certificate of cause of death.

A

True

139
Q

Importance of Correct entry - T or F

Immediate cause – defined as the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death; or the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury.

A

F - Underlying Cause

140
Q

if u see this card

A

review the examples under death cert - this will prolly make an appearance sa exams