Introduction to Biostatistics; Variables Flashcards

1
Q

Latin word of State and the root word for statistics?

A

Status

2
Q

The study of the state or condition of data

A

Statistics

3
Q

a science which deals with collection, organization, analysis and interpretation of numerical data

A

Statistics

4
Q

the application of statistics to problems in the biological sciences, health, and medicine

A

Biostatistics

5
Q

Application of statistics to science Health

A

Biostatistics

6
Q

Father of Health Statistics?

A

John Graunt (1620-1674)

7
Q

quantitative data needed as a basis for the planning, monitoring, and evaluation of health services

A

Public Health Statistics

8
Q

Components of Public Health Statistics

A
• Vital Statistics
• Health Statistics
9
Q

refers to data on vital events (number of births, deaths and marriages)

A

Vital Statistics

10
Q

Event worth recording, these events were registered where it happened

A

Vital Statistics

11
Q

child born in qc, registered at qc then, what statistics?

A

Vital Statistics

12
Q

covers a wide variety of numeric information including data on morbidity, hospital and clinic statistics, service statistics

A

Health Statistics

13
Q

Vital Statistics + Health Statistics =

A

Public Health Statistics

14
Q

Application of Statistics

designed to collect information about the voting preferences of the population before and after elections.

A

Surveys

15
Q

Application of Statistics

gather sample data on consumers’ choice of brands of products and commodities

A

16
Q

Application of Statistics

conduct clinical trials to determine the efficacy or effectiveness of certain medicines or vaccines to be used in treating or preventing diseases.

A

Physicians

17
Q

Application of Statistics

extract a minuscule sample of blood to determine the complete blood count (CBC) of a particular patient.

A

Medical technologists

18
Q

Application of Statistics

use demographic data of their patients in a hospital or community to describe the characteristics that may have an influence in their care.

A

Nurses

19
Q

Application of Statistics

use vital statistics to plan health programs in a community that will address health problems.

A

Health managers

20
Q

Application of Statistics

makes use of statistical principles

A

Research

21
Q

T or F

Statistics becomes an important tool in decision-making

A

T

22
Q

What are the Branches of Statistics?

A
• Descriptive
• Inferential
23
Q

applies to the collection and organization part

A

Descriptive statistics

24
Q

applies to the analysis and interpretation part

A

Inferential statistics

25
Q

Describing the sample

A

Descriptive statistics

26
Q

Refers to the methods applied in order to summarize and present data in a form that will make the data easy to analyze and interpret

A

Descriptive Statistics

27
Q

When the data are inferred or generalized to the population of interest

A

Inferential Statistics

28
Q

Get small sample then make a conclusion and inferential from that for the whole population

A

Inferential Statistics

29
Q

Refers to the methods involved in order to make generalizations and/or conclusions about a ____________, based on the data collected from a sample.

A

Target Population

30
Q

What are the faces of Estimation

A
• Point Estimate
• Interval Estimate
31
Q

single numerical value of the parameter being estimated

A

Point

32
Q

consists of a boundary of values within which the parameter is expected to lie at certain confidence limits, the lower limit and the upper limit

A

Interval Estimate

33
Q

In hypothesis Testing, what are the types of problems ecountered?

A
• Relationship or Association
• Comparison or Difference
34
Q

How many variables are there in Relationship or Association for hypothesis testing?

A

At least 2 variables

35
Q

Is there an association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer (what type of problem)

A

Relationship or Association

36
Q

Is there a difference between male and female intelligence? (what type of problem)

A

Comparison or Difference

37
Q

What hypotheses is denoted as Ho

A

Null hypothesis

38
Q

what hypothesis is denoted as Ha or H1

A

Alternative Hypothesis

39
Q

The researcher’s hypothesis is the?

A

Alternative hypothesis (Ha or H1)

40
Q

T or F

The alternative hypothesis is what the researcher hopes to prove

A

True - It is the hypothesis that he believes in

41
Q

if u see this card

A

Remember – When we do hypothesis testing, our aim is to reject the null, since we would like to accept the researcher’s hypothesis since this is the hypothesis that the researcher believes in.
- Write alternative hypothesis first, then make the null hypothesis
- Hypothesis is just an scientific guess not a FACT

42
Q

what are the wats of stating an alternative Hypothesis

A
• One Tailed
• Two Tailed
43
Q
• also known as a directional Ha
A

One tailed

44
Q
• also known as a non-directional Ha
• there exists a difference between A and B
A

Two-tailed

45
Q

A phenomenon whose value remains the same from person to person, from time to time, or from place to place

A

Constant

46
Q

A phenomenon whose values or categories cannot be predicted with certainty

A

Variable

47
Q

Number of minutes in an hour - Constant or Variable?

A

Constant

48
Q

Why is Biostatistics needed as a science?

A

PHENOMENON OF VARIATION! - Things are not constant, so they always need to be studied

49
Q

There are two data types that researchers collect, what are those?

A
• Variables
• Concepts
50
Q

T or F

It is important that the data used in the study are operationalized in qualitative terms.

A

F - measurable terms (we can say na quantified dapat)

51
Q
• Are mental images or perceptions
• Their meaning may vary from individual to individual.
A

Concept

52
Q

Unlike a variable, a concept cannot be measured ________.

A

Objectively

53
Q

T or F

It is therefore important for a concept to be converted into a variable?

A

True

54
Q

T or F

One must be able to formulate criteria to be able to measure the concept and transform it to a variable.

A

True

55
Q

Converting a concept to a variable needs a ______________ or a ____________to make it usable in research that is devoid of various interpretations and measurements.

A

a validated questionnaire or a set of criteria

56
Q

T or F

Setting an indicator or indicators or a set of criteria to define a variable is operationalizing the concept.

A

F (concept not a variable)

57
Q

If you see this card

A

Review the example under the Operationalizing a Concept

58
Q
• Data are capable of taking on different values
• Usually easy to define and label or measurement is objective, i.e., devoid of any subjective interpretation.
A

Variable

59
Q

They can be either be qualitative or quantitative

A

Variable

60
Q

What are the types of Variable?

A
1. Qualitative
2. Quantitative
61
Q

one whose categories are simply used as labels to distinguish one group from another

A

Qualitative

62
Q

one whose categories can be measured and ordered according to quantity or amount or whose values can be expressed numerically.

A

Quantitative

63
Q

e.g. gender, place of residence

A

Qualitative

64
Q

e.g. height, birth weight

A

Quantitative

65
Q

Types of variable under QUANTITATIVE

A
• Discrete
• Continuous
66
Q

if it can assume only integral values or whole numbers
No decimal points and fractions

A

Discrete

67
Q

If it can attain any value including fractions or decimals

A

Continuous

68
Q

If you see this card

A

Review the exercise under variable: Quantitative

69
Q

What are the 4 scale of measurement?

A
1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Interval
4. Ratio
70
Q

“Label” or categories

A

Nominal

71
Q

Ranked or Ordered

A

Ordinal

72
Q

The exact distance between two categories can be determined but zero point is arbitrary – the zero here is not true, may mas mababa pa sa zero

A

Interval

73
Q

zero point is fixed

A

Ratio

74
Q

If you see this card

A

Review the scale of measurement examples!! please !!!!

75
Q

What are factors under the Relationship/Association

A
1. Independent
2. Dependent
3. Confounding
76
Q

is the factor that affects the value of the dependent condition that produces the outcome.

A

Independent Variable

77
Q

In a cause-effect relationship, it is the cause

A

Independent Variable

78
Q

In an experiment, it is what the researcher manipulates or varies

A

Independent Variable

79
Q

The factor whose value is affected by the independent variable.

A

Dependent Variable

80
Q

It is the outcome of a process.

A

Dependent Variable

81
Q

It is the effect in a cause-effect relationship.

A

Dependent Variable

82
Q

It is the indicator of change in the event.

A

Dependent Variable

83
Q

is a variable which is not the principal interest in the study, but it distorts the results of the study because it is associated with both the independent and dependent variables.

A

Confounding Variable (Extraneous Variable)

84
Q

If you see this card

A

go back to the examples for the variables (independent, dependent, and confounding)

85
Q

diagrammatic representation of the hypothesis of relationship between independent and dependent variables.

A

Conceptual Framework

86
Q

If you see this card

A

you’re prolly done hehi