Female Reproductive Physiology Flashcards Preview

REPRO II Exam 1 > Female Reproductive Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive Physiology Deck (51):
1

luteal phase

elevated progesterone and low estrogen

secretory endometrium forms

2

follicular phase

FSH elevated
-proliferation of granulosa cells

increased estrogen secretion in follicles

3

theca cells

LH stimulation

form androgens

4

granulosa cells

FSH stimulation

increased aromatase - androgen to estrogen

5

estrogen

acts locally on granulosa cells - increased proliferation and sensitivity to FSH

rising level of estrogens - follicular phase

6

inhibin B

from granulosa cells

inhibits secretion of FSH by pituitary

7

estrogen effect

endometrial cell - increased rate of mitotic divions

cervical mucus thin and watery

8

very high estrogen

no longer inhibit LH and FSH

start positive feedback - LH surge and very high FSH

9

LH surge

induction of ovulation

removed restraint upon meiosis
prophase 1 to metaphase 2
first polar body lost

10

production of progesterone

decreased activity of aromatase and decreased estrogen production

from luteal cells -that were formerly granulosa and theca cells

11

progesterone effect

endometrial to become secretory

thickens cervical mucus

thermogenic - increased body temp

negative feedback on LH

12

menstruation

due to lack of gonadal sex steroids

13

to monitor menstrual cycle

look at sex steroids in urine

14

early follicular phase

low progesterone
low but slowly rising estrogen

15

follicular phase

low progestone and rapidly rising estrogens

16

luteal phase and pregnancy

elevated progesterone

17

potency estrogens

estradiol > estrone > estriol

18

amenorrhea

lack of menstrual bleeding

19

length of follicular phase

more variable

20

increased DHEA

PCOS

21

hirsutism caused by ovarian source of adrenal source

measure DHEA
dexamethasone suppression test

22

most common cause of ovarian androgen excess

PCOS

23

ectopic pregancy

failure of pick up of ovum by fimbrae

24

fertilization

upper end of oviduct

25

first step in infertility evaluation

semen analysis

26

implantation

5-7 days after fertilization

at blastocyst stage

27

hCG

from trophoblast cells of fetus

has LH activity

test for pregnancy

rescues corpus luteum

28

peak of hCG

first three months of pregnancy

29

marker of corpus luteum function

17-hydroxyprogesterone

secreted by CL and not placenta

30

relaxin

from CL

31

third month

placenta secretes enough progesterone and estrogen to maintain uterus

not controlled by hCG anymore

32

placental progesterone secretion limited by

cholesterol delivered by LDL to placenta

33

index of placental function and fetal well being

estriol levels

34

estrogen secretion during pregnancy

involves transfer of steroids from fetal adrenal cortex and fetal liver to placenta
-then to maternal circulation

fetal adrenal cortex - secrete DHEA and DHEAS

fetal liver and placenta - convert these to estrogens - enter maternal circulation

35

hPL

from placenta
-aka hCS

during latter half of pregnancy

actions similar to GH

maternal energy more available to fetus

36

second trimester

pregnancy becomes hyperinsulinemic state with peripheral resistance to metabolic effects of insulin

reserves glucose for fetal needs

mother - FA for energy

modest fasting - ketosis

37

maternal compensation to pregnancy

CV/renal
-CO increases with peripheral resistance decrease

no HTN

BP decline first trimester - then rises

GFR increase and renal threshold decrease

glucose in urine

38

endocrine maternal changes during pregnancy

anterior pituitary enlarges

39

postpartum pituitary necrosis

sheehan
-preced by obstetric hemorrhage

failure to lactate

40

relaxin

from ovary

pubic symphysis, cervix, vagina increased distensibility

41

induce contractions

oxytocin

but normal pregnancy - oxytocin not elevated until fetus enters birth canal

so does not initiate rhythmic uterine contractions characteristic of onset of labor

does cause uterus to contract immediately after fetus expelled - to limit blood flow and loss

42

prostaglandins

act locally on myometrium - contraction

increased with oxytocin

43

dead fetus

increased prostaglandins - initiates contractions - miscarriage

44

induce abortion

prostaglandins

45

mammary tissue grwoth

stimulated by estrogen and progesterone

also need PRL, GH, and cortisol

46

milk synthesis

occurs with high PRL

at birth - estrogen drops - withdraws block on milk synthesis

47

to maintain lactation

suckling necessary

afferent to magnocellular nucleus of hypothalamus
-synthesize oxytocin

oxytocin to post pituitary
-causes contraction of myoepithelial cells
-milk ejection

anterior pituitary - PRL - milk synthesis

48

dopamine

prolactin inhibiting factor

this is inhibited by suckling - allowing PRL secretion to increase

49

suckling

inhibits GnRH, FSH, and LH release

follicular growth, estrogen secretion, and menses stop

50

women who doesn't want to breastfeed

high dose

inhibits lactation

51

contraceptive effect

breast feeding