Uterine Pathology I Flashcards Preview

REPRO II Exam 1 > Uterine Pathology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uterine Pathology I Deck (51):
1

internal and external os

opening of cervix
-to uterus- internal
-to vagina - external

2

layers of uterus

myometrium
basalis
functionalis - this shed at menses

has glands and stroma - make up mucosa layer

3

day 1 of menstrual cycle

1st day of menses

4

phases of menstrual cycle

follicular - day 1 to day before LH surge
luteal - day of LH surge to onset of menses

5

length of menstrual cycle

14-21 days in follicular
14 days luteal

little variability age 20-40
significant variability first 5-7 years and last 10 years of menstruation

6

proliferative phase

estrogen

7

secretory phase

progesterone

8

POD2-3

ovulation
-subnuclear vacuoles

9

POD9

mid-secretory phase
-periarteriolar decidual change

10

POD12

late-secretory phase
-predecidua, inflammatory cells

11

menometrorrhagia

irregular menses

12

metrorrhagia

excessive flow and duration at irregular intervals

13

menorrhagia

excessive bleeding - normal intervals

14

withdrawal bleeding

bleeding follows withdrawal of hormones

15

oligomenorrhea

intervals greater than 35 days

16

polymenorrhea

intervals less than 24 days

17

dysfunctional uterine bleeding

dx of exclusion
-unschedule bleeding, presumed to be consequence of hormonal/functional abnormality

18

subnuclea vacuolizations

early secretory phase

19

abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause and menopause women

if have lesion - need biopsy

-carcinoma, hyperplasia, polyps

20

most common cause of anovulatory cycle in repro age

unopposed estrogen

21

anovulatory cycle

prolonged and unopposed estrogen stimulation

endometrium unstable with breakdown

22

inadequate luteal phase

abnormal corpus luteum
-low progesterone

infertility

bx - histo date is >2 days behind clinical date of menstrual cycle**

23

bx - histo date is >2 days behind clinical date of menstrual cycle**

inadequate luteal phase

24

neutrophils in endometrium

acute endometritis

infections that areise after delivery or miscarriage

vaginal bacteria

strep group A and staph - polymicro

tx - broad spectrum antibiotics

25

plasma cells in endometrium

chronic endometritis

26

chronic endometritis

chronic PID
retained products of conception
IUD
TB

27

presence of endometrium tissue outside endometrium

endometriosis

28

presences of endometrium tissue inside myometrium

adenomyosis

forms discrete mass - adenomyoma

29

locations of endometriosis

ovary
uterine ligament
rectovaginal septum
cul de sac
pelvic peritoneum
bowel
genitalia
bladder mucosa

30

cyclic pelvic pain

endometriosis

31

infertility

40% of endometriosis

fallopian tubes or ovary

32

metastatic theory

endometriosis from implantation of menstrual tissue

33

metaplastic theory

endometriosis arises from mesothelium - bc mullerian origin

34

extrauterine stem cell theory

endometriosis from bone marrow cells that differentiate to endometrial tissue

35

endometriosis

see glands and stroma**

cyclic pain pattern

COX-2 inhibitors - control inflammation

36

endometriosis tissue

cycles with menstrual cycle - including bleeding

37

risks with endometriosis

2x increase in ovarian cancer of endometroid and clear cell types

38

PTEN and ARID1A mutations

endometroid and clear cell ovarian cancer

39

chocolate cyst

endometrioma

endometriosis tissue in ovary - fills with lbood

40

powder burn

endometriosis of cervix

41

endometrial polyps

benign - but may contain neoplastic foci

tx - surgery

present with bleeding

42

increased gland to stroma ratio

endometrial hyperplasia

proliferation of endometrial glands relative to stroma

43

endometrial hyperplasia

obesity, menopause, PCOS (stein leventhal syndrome), granulosa cell tumor of ovary, prolonged estrogen therapy

relationship to endometrial carcinoma

44

obese women

prolonged estrogen stimulation
-endometrial hyperplasia

45

stein-leventhal syndrome

PCOS

46

EIN

endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia - atypia

tx - hysterectomy

increased estrogen**

47

PTEN

inactivation of this tumor suppressor gene
-endometrial hyperplasia

chromosome 10q23.3

48

cowden syndrome

mutation of PTEN
-high incidence of endometrial cancer

49

warburg effect

increased glucose uptake by tumor cells

50

loss of PTEN

activation of PI3K-AKT
-promoting cell growth

51

atypia

EIN