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Flashcards in Fetal Pathology Deck (18)
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Gestational age cut off for pre-term birth? For post-term birth?

37 weeks for pre-term.
42 weeks for post-term.

1

Most common cause of early pregnancy loss? Specifically?

Chromosomal abnormalities.
Monosomy X, triploidy, and trisomy 16.

2

What gross abnormality is commonly seen in monosomy X fetuses?

Cystic hygroma +/- hydrops.
(cystic hygroma = lymphatic malformation such that fluid builds up)

3

What are the TORCH infections?

Toxoplasma
Other - syphilis, Parvovirus B19, etc.
Rubella
CMV
Herpes

4

How are all the TORCH infections spread?

Hematogenously

5

How can CMV present on ultrasound?

As an echogenic bowel.

6

About what percentage of US babies are born pre-term?

About 12%

7

4 risk factors for pre-term delivery?

Pre-term premature rupture of placental membranes (PPROM)
Intrauterine infection
Structural abnormalities (uterine, placental, cervical)
Multiple gestation

8

Cut off for low birthweight, in grams?
What percentiles are considered low and high birth weight?

2500 grams.
10th and lower = low.
90th and higher = high.

9

4 short term major complications of pre-term birth?

Hyaline membrane disease / neonatal chronic lung disease
Necrotizing enterocolitis
Intraventricular hemorrhage
Sepsis

10

Why is hyaline membrane disease called that?
How does it progress?

Looks like ground glass "granular densities" in histology - these line the alveoli and cause problems for gas exchange.
Baby initially breathing, trouble within 30 minutes, progressing to cyanosis within hours.

11

Treatment for / to prevent hyaline lung disease?

Exogenous surfactin.

12

What's different in chronic neonatal lung disease?

Alveolar architecture destroyed -> less surface area for gas exchange. (looks like more open space on histology)
- the notes say that modern ventilators aren't as traumatic to premature babies' lungs, so there's less of this.

13

Necrotizing enterocolitis... it's what it sounds like. Why is it bad?

Can lead to adhesions, reduced growth / neuro development, short gut syndrome.

14

What's the germinal matrix? What does it have to do with complications of pre-mature birth?

Transient structure lining ventricles composed of glial and neurons that has a dense venous supply.
They're going away from weeks 16-34. If still there when baby is born, fluctuations in blood pressure can cause intraventricular hemorrhage.

15

What's the most common congenital tumor?

Hemangioma.

16

What kinds of teratomas are notable in fetuses / neonates?

Sacrococcygeal. Most are mature and benign.

17

What is Wilm's tumor?

Aka. nephroblastoma, it mimics the nephrogenic histology of fetal kidney.