Flashcards in Genetic Implications of Breast Cancer Deck (21):
What's the lifetime risk for breast cancer for a woman in the US?
5 causes of hereditary breast cancer?
What process to BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene products play a role in?
Homologous DNA repair.
What makes a DNA test for breast cancer related genes useful?
Defined response to positive result.
Defined response to negative result.
What is absolute risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations?
60-80% risk (vs. 13% in general population)
Does BRCA1 mutation increase the risk of breast cancer in men?
Yes - but it's going from 0.1% incidence to 1-2% incidence. (look into it if you see breast cancer in a man)
Outside of reproductive cancers, what specific cancers to BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of?
BRCA2: pancreas and melonoma
Which BRCA gene increases the risk of prostate cancer in men?
Diagnosis of breast cancer before what age would make you suspicious of BRCA1/2 mutation?
- Before age 40
- At least 2 women in same lineage with breast cancer under 50
- Ashkenazi Jewish woman
- Triple negative breast cancer under 50 (neg ER/PR/HER2-neu)
Ethnic group noted as having higher rates of carrying BRCA1/2?
Who is it most informative to test for deleterious mutations?
AFFECTED FAMILY MEMBER (person who actually has the disease)
A negative result in an unaffected individual doesn't tell you much about their risk.
What are "variants of unknown significance"?
What's one way to figure out their significance?
- Mutations in the tested gene, but unclear whether they cause loss of function.
- Test many family members to see if the specific mutation tracks with cancer incidence
- MUCH more common in African American population
5 things you do in response to positive BRCA1/2 test?
Test adult relatives.
What's the penetrance like in BRCA1/2 mutations?
Not 100%.--> there is significant variability in penetrance
May be modified by other genes and environment.
Does Risk Reducing Salpingo-Oophrectomy work to prevent cancer and all-cause mortality?
It has the greatest effect when used as secondary prevention - but this isn't surprising, as these women are higher risk.
Do BRCA1/2 related tumors have worse prognoses than sporadic tumors?
Nope. There is no difference in prognosis. Some ovarian tumors in BRCA1/2 carriers may actually respond better to chemo/ have better prognosis (with use of platinum chemo agents)
Might the specific kind of chemotherapy that is used be more effective when the patient is a BRCA1/2 carrier?
At least in BRCA1-deficient tumors, cisplatin works better because it's a kind of damage these cells can't repair.
(taxanes don't seem to work as well)
What is synthetic lethality? What does it take advantage of?
BRCA1/2 normally repairs double-stranded DNA breaks. PARP works in an alternative dsDNA break repair mechanism.
If you inhibit PARP in a BRCA-deficient cell, the repair pathway is knocked out entirely and results in CELL DEATH
What nefarious phenomenon has been seen in tumors that become resistant to "synthetic lethality"?
Second mutations that restore BRCA proteins function (normally is knocked out in people who carry the BRCA1/2 mutations), allowing them to overcome PARP inhibitors and platinum agents.
What have GWAS revealed about heritability of breast cancer?
- Dominant alleles have been ID'd
- FGFR2 (SNP gene)
- Any1 SNP will raise risk only minimally
- SNP panels may have future application to give overall risk level