Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 10 Deck (53):
1

What was a surprising feature about the deadly nature of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus?

H1N1 affected healthy young people.

2

DNA and RNA are polymers composed of ________ monomers.

nucleotide

3

The backbone of DNA consists of ________.

a repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern

4

Thymine and cytosine differ from adenine and guanine in that ________.

thymine and cytosine are single-ring structures, whereas adenine and guanine are double-ring structures

5

RNA contains the nitrogenous base ________ instead of ________, which is found only in DNA

uracil... thymine

6

If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases is guanine?

30%

7

In a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with ________ and guanine pairs with ________.

thymine... cytosine

8

If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what is the sequence of the other strand?

CAGGTA

9

Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from ________.

X-ray crystallography studies

10

What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?

hydrogen

11

After replication, ________.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand

12

DNA replication ________.

requires the cooperation of over a dozen enzymes and other proteins

13

What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?

phenotype

14

How many amino acids are common to all living systems?

20

15

How many nucleotides make up a codon?

three

16

The shared genetic code of all life on Earth is evidence that ________.

all life shares a common ancestry

17

Transcription is the ________.

manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA

18

If a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a(n) ________.

single RNA strand with the sequence UUCGAG

19

Which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis?

RNA polymerase

20

The region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the ________.

promoter

21

The CORRECT sequence of events occurring during transcription is ________.

initiation, elongation, termination

22

The absence of a terminator in transcription will result in ________.

the production of a longer RNA molecule

23

What protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes?

a cap and tail

24

The expressed (coding) regions of eukaryotic genes are called ________.

exons

25

Translation converts the information stored in ________ to ________.

RNA... a polypeptide

26

The RNA that is translated into a polypeptide is ________ RNA.

messenger

27

The DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon ________.

AGU

28

Where is translation accomplished?

ribosomes

29

During translation, what is the CORRECT order of events that occur as an amino acid is added?

codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation

30

Peptide bonds form between ________.

amino acids

31

Scientific research companies sell kits that allow researchers to produce proteins in test tubes via a process known as "in vitro translation." Which one of following components is NOT needed in these kits?

DNA

32

A mutation within a gene that will insert a premature stop codon in mRNA would ________.

) result in a shortened polypeptide chain

33

What is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message?

one

34

What is the ultimate source of all diversity?

mutation

35

Mad cow disease is caused by

infectious proteins called prions.

36

How can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death?

via a lysogenic cycle

37

As an experiment, you infect bacteria with an unknown virus to see how the bacteriophage affects the bacteria. After a few days, you notice that the bacterial population is growing normally and that the cells appear healthy. Assuming that the infection occurred, what can you conclude from your observations?

The virus is a bacteriophage that is reproducing the lysogenic cycle.

38

Plant viruses ________.

often use RNA, rather than DNA, as their genetic material

39

A(n) ________ is to bacteria as a ________ is to animal cells.

prophage... provirus

40

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) must use its own ________ to reproduce.

reverse transcriptase

41

Which of the following would NOT likely develop as an emerging virus?

a virus harmful to humans that changes very slowly over time

42

The figure below shows the flow of genetic information in a eukaryotic cell. The transfer of information from DNA into an RNA molecule is known as ________.
Art: curl, wave, circle train

transcription

43

Examine the genetic code table shown below. The codon AGC codes for the amino acid ________.

serine

44

Consider the following figure. It illustrates that a single amino acid substitution in the hemoglobin gene ________.

may alter a protein so that it no longer functions properly

45

Flu vaccines have been demonstrated to protect the elderly, as shown in the figure below. Assume there is a sample of 100 elderly people that normally would be hospitalized in winter. How many of them would you predict would still be hospitalized in the winter if all 100 of them received the flu vaccine?

73

46

An mRNA is expressed that begins with the sequence AUGCCAGGCGUC. Using the genetic code below, determine what peptide will be translated from this mRNA.

Met — Pro — Gly — Val

47

The first thing you notice is that there is no immediate increase in viruses following infection. This is because ________.

although the virus has infected the host, it takes time to complete the lytic cycle

48

Once viruses are detected, the number of viruses increases rapidly. This is because ________.

) the viruses lyse the hosts to release mature viruses quickly in a short amount of time

49

At what point on the graph are the viruses increasing in number the fastest?

C

50

Assume that you want to take a sample of viruses so that you could use them to infect the most bacteria. At what point on the graph should you take your sample from if you want to achieve this goal?

D

51

The mutation that resulted from the accident was probably ________.

one that changed the triplet grouping of the genetic message

52

The mutation would be most harmful to the cells if it resulted in ________.

a single nucleotide insertion near the start of the coding sequence

53

The researcher isolated a different single cell and determined that it was producing a certain protein. However, the protein was much shorter than it should have been. What kind of mutation likely occurred in this protein?

one that introduced a premature stop codon