Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 18 Deck (53):
1

Suppose that a group of climate scientists claims that they can predict future impacts of global climate change with 98% accuracy. Why should you be skeptical of this claim?

Their predictions are based on incomplete information about species diversity and interactions of living organisms with each other and with their environments.

2

Ecology is the study of ________.

interactions between organisms and their environments

3

Which of the following is abiotic?

a rock

4

If you study how two species of finches compete for food, you are trying to answer a question about ________.

community ecology

5

What level of ecology is concerned with the adaptations of individuals?

organismal

6

What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of the same species?

population

7

What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of different species?

community

8

What is a population?

a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area

9

Which of these is a community?

all of the organisms living in your home

10

What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?

ecosystem

11

Which of the following organisms are NOT ultimately dependent on sunlight for energy?

species that live in hydrothermal vent habitats

12

Aquatic organisms ________.

may experience problems with water balance

13

Which nutrients often limit the distribution and abundance of photosynthetic organisms?

nitrogen and phosphorus

14

What term applies to the physical and physiological changes experienced by astronauts who spend months in space?

acclimation

15

Which of the following is a behavioral response to environmental variability?

migrating to a different location

16

In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?

photic zone

17

Wetlands ________.

are important in improving water quality

18

What are estuaries?

transition areas between a river and the ocean

19

Which of these biomes is one of the most biologically productive of all biomes?

estuaries

20

What name is given to the region where sea meets land?

intertidal zone

21

What name is given to the open ocean?

pelagic realm

22

In what part of the ocean are phytoplankton found?

pelagic realm

23

What name is given to the seafloor?

benthic realm

24

Temperate zones ________.

have milder climates than the tropics

25

Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?

oceans

26

Water-storing plants and deeply rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ________.

deserts

27

The Sahara Desert and the Negev Desert belong to the same ________.

biome

28

Long, snowy winters as well as evergreen trees such as pine and fir are found in ________.

coniferous forests

29

________ are the dominant herbivores of savanna ecosystems.

Insects

30

What is one important difference between savannas and temperate grasslands?

Temperate grasslands are mostly treeless.

31

Which of these biomes are maintained by fire?

chaparral and savannas

32

Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes ________.

tundra

33

Most of the temperate grassland in North America has been converted to ________.

farmland

34

Water moves from land to the atmosphere through ________.

transpiration and evaporation

35

With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?

when it is raining, or is about to rain

36

What fraction of Earth's surface has been altered by human use?

75%

37

The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is due primarily to ________.

CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth

38

Temperature increases due to global warming have been greatest ________.

close to the poles

39

An effect of deforestation has been to ________.

) increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

40

In the oceans, global warming has ________.

made the water more acidic

41

Which of the following is NOT a result of global warming?

increased forest clearing for agricultural purposes

42

Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted to humans from a parasite that infects mosquitoes that feed on humans. World health officials have concerns that climate change may impact the transmission of malaria into tropical highland areas in Africa. If these concerns turn out to be valid, they would be evidence for which of the following?

Global climate change affects the distribution of species.

43

Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?

eating more beef and less chicken

44

Which of the following is NOT a cause of increasing CO2 levels?

creating compost piles from vegetable waste

45

Scientists have documented that spring seasons starting earlier due to climate change have resulted in some caterpillar species beginning their maturation stage earlier than normal. There are bird species that need the caterpillars to feed their chicks. However, since the caterpillars are maturing before the chicks hatch (and therefore cannot be used for chick food), the birds are experiencing a drop in their lifetime reproductive success. Interestingly, scientists have also documented that the individual birds that are best able to change when they lay their eggs to align with earlier spring seasons have the greatest lifetime reproductive success. These phenomena are examples of ________.

an evolutionary response to climate change

46

Examine the figure below. Which part of Earth receives the greatest intensity of solar radiation?

equator

47

Examine the figure below. Phytoplankton live in the ________.

photic zone

48

Examine the figure below. Globally, the largest amount of water moves from ________.

the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation

49

The physiological response that allows salmon to survive in fresh water, then in salt water, and then fresh water again is an example of ________.

acclimation

50

At different times in their lives, salmon can be found in all of the following EXCEPT

a chaparral

51

) In this scenario, how would you best describe CO2?

It is a baseline comparison for the GWP values of all other GHGs.

52

has a GWP over 20 times higher than CO2. However, CH4 emitted today lasts for only about a decade in the atmosphere, while the GWP of CO2 can last for thousands of years. What is a possible reason that CH4 can have such a high GWP as compared to CO2?

CH4 absorbs more energy than CO2.

53

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are greenhouse gases that, for a specific amount of mass, trap significantly more heat than CO2. How can you classify CFCs?

gases with greater GWP values than CO2