Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 13 Deck (50):

Which is NOT a benefit of the understanding of evolution to understanding the field of biology?

Understanding evolution helps us to understand why stars and galaxies change over time.


The common house mouse species, Mus musculus, has the following taxonomic classification: Mus, Muridae, Rodentia, Mammalia, Chordata, Animalia, Eukarya. Which part of the name is the Family?



________ believed that use (or lack of use) of body parts enables individual to develop certain traits that it passes on to its offspring while ________ believed that species are fixed forms that do not change over time.

Lamarck… Aristotle


Natural selection can be defined as ________.

a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals with other traits


Natural selection ________.

results in evolutionary adaptation


The first basic idea of evolutionary adaptation can be traced back to ________.



Which of the following statements about the voyage of the Beagle is TRUE? A

It turned into a tremendous opportunity for Darwin to collect fossils, plants, and animals.


During his trip on the Beagle, Darwin found that ________.

plants and animals living on a continent seemed more closely related to each other than to plants and animals living in similar regions on other continents


While on the Beagle, Darwin was influenced by a book by Charles Lyell that suggested that Earth was ________ and sculpted by geologic processes that ________ today.

old... continue


In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was ________.

natural selection


Which of the following is a component of the fossil record?

bones of extinct whales


The fossil record suggests that whales ________.

are closely related to land mammals such as pigs, hippos, and cows


Homology is evidence of ________.

common ancestry


Which of the following are homologous?

the forelimb of a dog and the forelimb of a cat


The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of ________.

common ancestry


Natural selection generally results in ________.

a population that is adapted to its current environment


Which of the following is NOT a requirement of natural selection?

gene flow


Which one of the following statements is TRUE?

Natural selection works on variation already present in a population.


Which of the following is a population?

the termites infesting your house


Which one of the following can create new alleles?



The total collection of alleles in a population at any one time makes up that population's ________.

gene pool


If the frequency of one allele in a population is 0.7 in a population with two alleles at a particular locus, what is the frequency of the alternate allele?



In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does p2 represent?

frequency of the homozygotes for one allele


In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does 2pq represent?

frequency of heterozygotes


The presence of freckles is due to a dominant allele. Four percent of the individuals in a particular population lack freckles. Use the Hardy-Weinberg formula to calculate the percentage of individuals in this population who are homozygous dominant for freckles.



The original source of genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ________.



Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

The population is not evolving.


Genetic drift is the result of ________.



Which one of the following will prevent significant genetic drift?

The population size is large.


After surviving a bottleneck, a population recovers to the point where it consists of as many individuals as it did prior to the bottleneck. Which of the following statements is most likely to apply to this population?

The postbottleneck population exhibits less genetic variation than the prebottleneck population.


The founder effect differs from a population bottleneck in that the founder effect ________.

involves the isolation of a small colony of individuals from a larger population


Which of the following is the most likely explanation for a particular human population with a higher incidence of polydactyly (extra fingers/toes) than the human population as a whole?

founder effect


Gene flow is accomplished by ________.



What does evolutionary fitness measure?

relative reproductive success


Which of the following is an example that results from directional selection?

There is an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.


Which of the following examples results from disruptive selection?

Garter snakes with different coloration patterns behave differently when threatened.


Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?

stabilizing selection


Which of the following examples results from stabilizing selection?

The birth weight at which newborn humans are most likely to survive and the average weight


Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?

Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.


What leads paleontologists to hypothesize that whales evolved from wolf-like carnivores?

observations of fossil teeth


Examine the relationships between the elephants in the figure below. Which one of the following pairs is most closely related?

Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis


Examine the evolutionary tree below. This tree tells us that the amnion is found in ________.

mammals, lizards, snakes, crocodiles, and birds


The figure below shows the percent of selected DNA sequences that match between a chimpanzee and other primates. These data support the hypothesis that ________.

) the chimpanzee's closest surviving relative is humans


The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides. This is an example of ________.

natural selection


Some biologists urge the collection of the few remaining individuals of some of the most threatened amphibian species in order to preserve them if they become extinct in the wild. If such captive-breeding programs could produce thousands of individuals from just a few of the remaining survivors, the species will still be threatened because of ________.

a bottleneck effect


When most populations of a wide-ranging amphibian species are lost and the few remaining populations are widely separated, we expect to see that ________.

gene flow between populations is reduced


Chytridiomycosis is a fungal disease first identified in 1998 as a cause of massive amphibian deaths. In some severely impacted populations, a few individuals have survived, perhaps because of some natural resistance. If these resistant individuals continue to survive and prosper, new resistant populations might emerge. This would be an example of ________.

natural selection


What can you conclude about the susceptibility of the bacteria to the antibiotics?

The bacteria are more susceptible to antibiotic C than antibiotic E.


After rigorous testing, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) must decide which of the four antibiotics to approve to fight a bacterial infection that results in high fevers and localized rashes. Which antibiotic do you predict that the FDA scientists will likely approve?



After 1 year of widely prescribed use, reports surface that bacterial infections disappear for up to 2 weeks after taking the prescribed antibiotic but then reappear, sometimes worse than the first time. Which of the following explanations might the FDA use to defend their choice of antibiotic to treat the infection?

Patients are not taking the antibiotic for the length of time prescribed and so selection for resistant bacteria that can survive a limited course of antibiotic is occurring.