Flashcards in Final Exam- Lecture Chap. 14 Deck (46):
Which of the following is the strongest piece of evidence for why some scientists believe that we are at the start of a sixth mass extinction?
decrease in biodiversity
Biological species consist of groups of ________.
Under the biological species concept, what criterion is used to assign populations of organisms to the same biological species?
being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
When brought together in a zoo, two species are capable of mating and producing fertile offspring. Why may they still be considered two distinct species?
Zoos are not natural environments.
The biological species concept cannot be applied to ________.
bacteria that reproduce only asexually
The biological species concept cannot be applied to fossils. Which alternate approach to identifying species would be most useful for classifying fossil organisms?
an approach based on measurable physical traits
A reproductive barrier that prevents individuals from closely related species from interbreeding is an example of ________.
a prezygotic barrier
What type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which female fireflies mate only with males who emit light in a particular pattern?
The type of reproductive barrier that occurs when two species mate but produce sterile hybrids is referred to as ________.
a postzygotic barrier
When two frog species, Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica, mate, the offspring die early in embryonic development. This is an example of ________.
reduced hybrid viability
Speciation requires ________.
Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?
A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. The two subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.
Sympatric speciation specifically EXCLUDES ________.
Some fish have bony fins. If the body of water they are in dries out, these fins can be used to help the fish "walk" to another body of water. In this context, bony fins are an example of ________.
Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of a(n) ________.
Which of the following would be an example of paedomorphosis?
insects that can reproduce in larval stages without reaching mature development stages
The current geological era is the ________.
Uranium-235, with a half-life of 713,000,000 years, decays to lead-207. If a rock sample is determined to have one-quarter of the uranium-235 content it had when it formed, the age of the rock sample can be estimated to be approximately ________ years old.
Plate tectonics has been responsible for instances of all of the following EXCEPT ________.
The Permian mass extinction is associated with ________.
the formation of Pangaea
Characid fishes are found naturally only in South America and Africa. Fossils of these fish are not found on any other continents. What is the most likely explanation of this distribution pattern?
Characid fishes arose prior to the separation of the African and South American continents.
Dinosaurs (aside from the lineage that produced birds) were extinct by the end of the ________.
A period of mass extinction is often followed by ________.
________ is the discipline of biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships.
The science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms is called ________.
Which of the following taxonomic levels is most inclusive?
Of the following taxonomic levels, species found within the same ________ are the most closely related
The wing of a bald eagle is ________ the wing of a penguin.
The wing of a penguin is ________ the wing of a butterfly.
Homology is evidence of ________.
Analogous structures are evidence of ________.
Molecular systematics might examine all of the following types of data EXCEPT ________.
An ancestral species and all its evolutionary descendants define a(n) ________.
Which one of the following is the only domain that contains eukaryotes?
When you go outside, it is common to hear a variety of bird songs. These songs vary among bird species as well as bird flocks. Interestingly, some bird species that are highly unrelated have very similar song qualities. What can you conclude from this phenomenon?
The bird songs are analogous traits.
What hypothesis did Luis and Walter Alvarez test in relation to the mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago (MYA)?
The mass extinction 65 MYA was caused by an impact of an extraterrestrial object.
Why is it INCORRECT to assume that mass extinctions carry only negative impact on the evolution of life on Earth?
Mass extinctions are sometimes followed by periods of evolutionary change when other organism groups can flourish and expand in diversity and size.
Examine the two squirrel populations in the following figure. The populations are separated by a geographic barrier. If after a long period of time the two species are no longer separated, what evidence is needed to determine if speciation has occurred?
The two populations are not interbreeding freely.
Examine the evolutionary relationships represented in the following figure. Based upon this diagram, the two most closely related species are ________.
coyotes and wolves
Examine the figure below. According to the figure, cladistic analysis indicates that crocodiles are more closely related to ________ than to ________.
Applying the biological species concept, the sterility of ligers reveals that ________.
tigers and lions are separate species
The natural differences in the ranges of wild tigers and lions is an example of ________.
a prezygotic barrier
The production of sterile male ligers is an example of ________.
a postzygotic barrier
If the researchers of this study wanted to collect reliable data about natural behavior, which methodology should they choose?
The researchers studied multiple male and female frogs from each species in their natural environments to determine their normal breeding seasons.
Based on the independent and dependent variables represented in the figure and the information you have about common geographic habitats as well as anatomical and gametic compatibility of the four frog species, you initially conclude that reproductive barriers may be due to ________.