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1

define phytotoxicity

injuring of plants when a product contacts them.

yellowing and wilting

2

What does the "target principle" mean to pesticide applicators?

3

Name 3 synthetic fungicides that might qualify as biological control products:

  • Affirm
  • Heritage
  • Endorse

4

define Virulence;

the ability of the pathogen to overcome the hosts defenses

5

What is alkaline hydrolosis?

  • Chemical breakdown of a product due to improper pH levels in the water.  

6

What is Topical Mode of Action?

Is is based on the toxins relationship with the plant

7

The mode of action that is based on toxins relationship with the fungus :

Biochemical mode of action

8

Define: Biochemical mode of action

Based on toxins relationship with the fungus

9

Define Topical mode of action :

Based on toxins relationship with the plant

10

What is Phytomibility? 

Phytomobility - how the a.i. moves within the plant

11

Mode of action is also broadly classified as _________ or ________.

Contacts or Penetrants

12

Why do penetrant fungicides take longer to work than contacts?

They have to get indside the plant to begin working

13

Where do penetrant fungicides affect fungi?

At metabolic sites

14

What are some key traits for a Localized Penetrant?

-It is absorbed, but doesn't move around -Sticks to the cuticle

15

What are are some key traits for Acropetal Penetrants?

They enter the plant and move between the cells along the Xylem and go UP ONLY.

16

What are some key traits for a Systemic Penetrant?

Is it absorbed into the plant cells and follows the transport of sugars in the phloem. It move both UP AND DOWN.

17

Compare Biochemical MOA and Topical MOA

Biochemical MOA is based on the toxin's relationship with the fungus and Topical MOA is based on the toxin's relationship with the plant

18

BIOCHEMICAL MOA: --Compare Multi-Site Toxins and Site-Specific Toxins

Multi-site toxins affect multiple metabolic sites and usually kill the fungus, might kill the plant and have little chance of resistance Site specific toxins affect a single metabolic site, most are fungistatic (stop fungal growth) but don't kill the fungus. High likelyhood of resistance

19

Define Monogenic resistance:

Fungi only need to change a sngle major gene to become resistant so resistance development is rapid

20

Define Polygenic resistance:

Fungi need to chance several major genes to become resistant so resistance development is gradual.

21

What is Cross resistance?

Resistance to more than one type of fungicide---usually materials in the same chemical class

22

What is Multiple resistance?

When fungi or strains of fungi are resistant or insensitive to materials in several chemical classes

23

What does FRAC stand for?

Fungicide Resistance Action Committee