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what are the pros and cons of using endophytes in your IPM program.

  • Pro- Infected plants are more stress tolerant
    • deters leaf feeding insects
  • Con- Can cause Choke disease that can harm the plants


How can you use a pitfall trap?


define plant phenology:

Study of the physical changes in plants in relation to the life cycle of insects. 

Example: When the Sumac is in full bloom, it means the Chinch Bugs are at peak adult emergence 


what is pesticide resistance?

It means the pest is no longer affected by the pesticide, it has adapted or developed ways to survive even when the product is used. 


what is microbial degradation?

The decline of microbial population or activity


what is an easy way to cause resistance or microbial degradation?

  • using the same MOA products without rotating them in and out with other MOA's


what is the biochemical mode of action for most insecticides? 

Nerve Toxins


define Non-Selective Herbicide

It doesn't just affect a particular species, it will have effects on all of the species it comes into contact with


how does a pre-emergent herbicide work?

It coats the soil and when the seed breaks open and the plant attempts to grow toward the surface, it contacts the herbicide that is in the soil and kills the plant.


How often should you monitor your greens in the summer?

At least once a day


what are the two main strategies for your cultural control program?

  • Create conditions that favor overall plant health while creating unfavorable confitions for pests. 


How does endophyte infection benefit the grass? What does the endophyte get out of the deal?

  • Causes the plant to be more stress tolerant
  • endophyte gets food resources from the plant


what does biorational mean?

Overall least harmful effects


what is the cheapest method of pest or disease control?

  • growing strong, healthy plants


define action threshold.

Pest population is high enough where there is a potential
for a problem – intervention may be needed 


name an herbicide for pre-emergent annual grass control.



what is Biotrek?

  • Trichoderma harzianum
    • A fungus that attacks other fungi


what is "milky spore disease"?

  • Bacilis popillae
    • Bacteria in native soil that causes Milky Spore Disease in Japanese Beetles
    • Non Toxic
    • Mixed results in turf


how does the federal govt. aid in our disease control programs?

It funds the APHIS and PPQ programs


define Suppressive Soils.

Soils that have charecteristics that are unfavorable for plant pests


give an example of how you can use cultural practices to eradicate a pathogen. 

Dry soil to supress Pythium


how can you use exclusion on your golf course?

Sanitation - clean equipment between use


what physical method can be used in a disease control program?

Heat treat seed


how can chemicals be used to eradicate pathogens?

use of fungicides