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Flashcards in Least Toxic Products Deck (35)
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1

What are some ways to determine how toxic something is or can be?

  • What material is it?
  • Dose
  • Formulation
  • What is the fate of the product in the environment
    • what else will it affect?

2

define Biorational:

Overall least harmful effects

3

What is a Botanical?

  • Toxic alkaloids from plants
  • Plant based oils

4

What is Pyrethrum?

What clas is it in?

  • Pyrethrum is a contact insecticide thats made from the flowers of Chrysanthemum's that are useless for turf applications. Is usually mixed with Rotenone. 
  • It is a Botanical

5

What is Rotenone?

What class is it in?

  • It's an insecticide that is derived from the roots of tropical legumes and is used on leaf feeding beetles and caterpillars.  
  • EC formulation is very toxic
  • Dust has Low toxicity
  • BOTANICAL CLASS

6

What is Azadiractin?

What class is it in?

  • It is an insecticide that is from seed of the Neem tree.
  • It's used as a repellant and growth regulator when ingested.
  • Neem Oil
  • Low mamalian toxicity 
  • BOTANICALS

7

what are inorganics?

  • Soaps and Oils
  • Metals and other compounds

8

what is Insecticidal soap?

What class is it in?

  • Soap made from plant oils that smother and dessicate soft bodied insects
  • INORGANICS CLASS

9

What are Horticulture Oils?

What class are they in?

  • Contact Insecticide made from highly refined petroleum, plant and fish based oils
  • Disrupts exoskeleton and sufficates insects
  • Used on Ornamentals
  • WIll Burn Turfgrass!!
    • Except Civitas - It can be used on turf
  • INORGANIC CLASS

10

What are Copper and Sulfur?

What Class are they in?

  • Pesticide used on insects and plants that has a wide range of toxicity depending on the amount of copper in the product. Used on Ornamentals.
  • Multi-site toxin with low resistance
  • INORGANIC CLASS

11

What are Antimicrobials and their trade names?

  • Used as Protectant Fungicides and Disinfectant with poor results on turfgrass. Hard on equipment
    • Hydrogen Dioxide - Zerotol
    • Potassium bicarbonate - Kaligreen
    • Dipotassium phosphate - Biophos

12

What do Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) do?

  • Inhibit growth and development

13

What is Halofenozide?

Trade name?

  • MACH2
  • Insect Growth Regulator that Causes premature and lethal molts (losing skin) on insects.
  • Good for grub control and is Low Toxic

14

What are Microbials?

  • Fungi, Bacteria and Nematodes that aid in the health of plants.

15

What is Beavaria bassiana?

What class?

  • fungus that lives in the soil and attacks insects of all life stages.
  • Called Naturalis T
  • Works well on Chinch Bugs
  • MICROBIALS

16

What is Trichoderma harzianum?

What class?

  • A fungus that attacks other Fungus
  • Granular formulation for dollar spot control
  • Trade names:
    • Rootshield
    • Turfshield
  • MICROBIALS

17

What are Neotyphodium endophytes?

What class?

  • Lives in Rye and Fescue
  • can be added to commercial grass seed
  • infected grass is more stress tolerant
  • Works well in Turfgrass
  • caution - If seed isn't stored properly, endophyte dies
  • MICROBIALS

18

what is Bacillus thuringiensis?

What class?

  • Most effective Biocontrol agent made
  • Sprayable bacterial spore that breaks down in an insects gut.
  • There are Host specific strains for different pests
  • MICROBIALS
  • Non Toxic

19

What is Basilis popillae?

What class?

  • Bacteria in native soil that causes Milky Spore Disease in Japanese Beetles
  • Non Toxic
  • Mixed results in turf
  • MICROBIALS

20

What is Basilis licheniformis?

What class?

  • Trade Name: EcoGuard
  • A Bacteria used for Anthracnose, Brown Patch, Dollar Spot
  • Not great control, but can be used in addition to other fungicides
  • MICROBIALS

21

What is Basilis Subtilis?

What class?

  • Trade Name: Rhapsody, Companion
  • to help control brown patch, and pythium blight
  • Can be used with other fungicides for synergy
    • Needs to be Integrated with other products
  • MICROBIALS

22

What are Entomopathogenic nematodes?

What class?

  • parasites of white grubs that act as an insecticide
  • Non Toxic
  • MICROBIALS

23

What are Spinosyns?

What class?

  • Trade Name: Conserve SC
  • Insecticides used as a nerve toxin with stomach and contact activity
  • MICROBIALS

24

What is Abamectin?

What class?

  • Trade Name: Avid, Advance
  • Toxic of Streptomyces
  • very effective insecticide for nematode control in turfgrass
  • MICROBIALS

25

What is Glucopyranosyl antibiotic?

What class?

  • Steptomycin sulfate
  • Sprayed for Bacterial Wilt on Ornamentals
  • Cannot use on Turfgrass
  • MICROBIALS

26

What is Tetracycline antibiotic?

What class?

  • Oxytetracycline
  • toxin of streptomyces used as sprayable and injectible formulations for Bacteria
  • MICROBIALS

27

What is Polyoxin?

What Class?

  • Trade Name: Polyoxin-D 
  • Single site toxin of Streptomyces
  • Used for Insect and Fungi control
  • MICROBIALS

28

What is Phenylpyrroles?

What class?

  • Trade name: Fludioxonil
  • Bacterial toxin used against fungi in turfgrass
  • MICROBIALS

29

What is Pseudomonas aureofaciens?

What class?

  • Called Spotless, TX-1 and Colony
  • Bacteria used as a fungicide used for pythium, dollar spot, brown patch and take-all
  • MICROBIALS

30

What are Qoi's?

  • Trade Name: Heritage
  • Used as fungicide for Pythium or Anthracnose on the golf course