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What is meant by food security?

Enough food for all people, with appropriate nutritional value and safe for consumption


What is meant by food safety?

Ensuring that both the food produced and sold in the UK and imported are safe to eat


Define HACCP

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
A system which identifies, evaluated and control hazards which are significant for food safety


Outline the role of the food industry in ensuring food safety

Food producers and processors, retailers and catering businesses need to adopt improved practices during production, storage and transport


What legislation regulates food safety in the UK?

- The Food Hygiene Package (EC 852, 853, 854/2004)


What is GMP?

Good manufacturing practices
A specified and recorded method of operation designed to minimise the hazards and capable of control and being monitored (prerequisite programmes)


What is GHP?

Good hygiene practices


What is required in order to produce and comply with a HACCP?

- Design of appropriate food processing facilities
- SOPs and SSOPs


Compare possible locations of food processing facilities

- Urban: unpopular, smell, noise, effluent
- Industrial: marginally better, restricted expansion
- Rural: easy to expand but distance from final consumer


What services are required in food processing facilities?

- Water
- Electricity
- Road/rail access
- Security
- Sewage
- Other waste disposal


What regulation applies to water use/provision in food processing facilities/

EC directive 80/778


Outline the important properties of the internal surfaces of a food processing facility

- Impervious, easily cleaned
- Chemical resistance
- Biochemical and bacterial resistant
- Impact resistant
- Resistance to condensation
- Good ventilation and insulation
- Non-slippery
- Wear resistant


What is included in the GMPs?

- Maintenance programme
- Cleaning programme
- Potable water
- Pest control
- Staff training programme on hygiene
- Staff medical programme


Describe the features of the maintenance programme included in a GMP

- In place so all structures/equipment maintained properly
- Keep maintenance log
- Minor damage promptly repaired
- Surfaces and cutting boards smooth, equipment free from rust and dirt
- Floors and drains inspected, cleaned daily


Describe the features of the cleaning programme included in a GMP

- Must contain cleaning procedures
- Plant documented system may include schedule
- Audited by plant and MHS staff
- Daily sign off sheets for those responsible
- Frequency of cleaning for each area/equipment
- Responsible person identified
- Sequence of cleaning
- Chemicals used
- Verification by surface swabbing
- Poor cleaning procedure indicated means immediate investigation and corrective action taken


Describe the requirements within the GMP for potable water

- Plant operator needs to prove water is potable
- Plant documented system may include water sampling and testing from all outlets annually on rotational basis for bacteriological screening (3 parameters assessed), positive results lead to immediate re-sampling
- Mains inlet sampled and tested for same parameters annually as well as 3 more
- Water company requested to supply annual physico-chemical analysis of water in area


What 3 parameters are assessed for water outlets in food production facilities?

- Total viable count at 22C
- TVC at 37C
- Total Coliforms


What additional parameters are assessed for the mains water inlet in food production facilities?

- E. coli
- E. faecalis
- Sulphite reducing Clostridia


Describe the features of pest control within the GMP

- Bait stations checked monthly + external checks by contractor
- Diagram showing locations of bait stations
- All doors and windows pest proof
- Pest control records kept in plant office


Describe the features of a plant training programme within the GMP

- Training programme for all staff handling food
- Qualified member of staff provides in-house hygiene training
- Each employee attends basic food hygiene course given by authorised provider, sit exam and obtain certificate
- All people handling carcass after death need Certificate of Competence


Describe the features of a staff medical programme within the GMP

- Staff notify management if they or family have symptoms of illness that may be transmissible to other humans via handling of exposed meat
- All absences from work notified to management
- Any member of staff suffering V/D should not return to work until 24 hours after symptoms have cleared
- If lasted 3 days or more or been abroad, Drs certificate required before return to work
- Visitors to fill in health questionnaire on arrival


What body led the international acceptance of HACCP-based systems?

1993 Codex Alimentarius


What is the Codex Alimentarius?

- A governing body established to develop food standards under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
- Aims to establish international food standards to protect consumers, ensure fair practices, promote coordination of food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organisation


What is the main aim of HACCP-based systems?

Give level of assurance as close to 100% as possible of a food product not being contaminated with pathogens, toxins etc.


Give potential barriers to HACCP

- Knowledge and competence
- Training
- Human resources
- Planning
- Management commitment
- Funding


What is assumed with a HACCP based system?

That a system of GMP is already in place within the food production system


List benefits of HACCP

- Preventative system
- Systematic approach
- Increases confidence
- Effective use of resources
- Cost effective control system
- "due diligence"
- Internationally accepted
- Strengthens quality management systems
- Facilitates regulatory/external audits
- Demonstrates management commitment


What is contained in the HACCP document?

- Process flow diagram
- HACCP control chart
- Supporting documentation
- Documents deemed relevant e.g. team details, product infor, decisions


How does the HACCP work?

- Defines the process
- Identifies possible hazards
- Identifies points critical to product safety
- Manages and verifies the above points


What are the stages of HACCP production?

1: Hazard analysis (flow diagram)
2: Identification of critical control points (CCP)
3: Establishment of CCP criteria
4: Monitoring procedures of CCPs
5: Protocols for CCP deviations
6: Record keeping
7: Verification