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Outline welfare in fish production

- No inherent factors in fish farming that result in inevitable poor welfare
- Only where poorly run
- 6 key stressors in aquaculture environment


What are the 6 key stressors in aquaculture?

- Water quality
- Crowding
- handling
- Disturbance
- Nutrition
- Hierarchy


How may water quality lead to stress in farmed fish?

Contaminated water can make it hard to breathe


How may crowding lead to stress in farmed fish?

Intense crowding can result in cannibalism


How may handling lead to stress in farmed fish?

Invasive handling results in stress and poor health


How may nutrition lead to stress in farmed fish?

Nutritional deficiencies can weaken the immune system and affect development e.g. spinal deformities


How may hierarchy lead to stress in farmed fish?

If unable to form a stable social hierarchy e.g. due to frequent mixing, can result in cannibalism


How is maximum survival and maintenance of healthy fish stocks primarily achieved?

- Good husbandry and health management practices and policies
- Reduce exposure to pathogens and risk of health challenges


How can diseases be prevented in fish?

- Vaccination at early stages of development
- Medicinal treatment in some instances to maximise survival
- However for several diseases no effective vaccines are currently available


List the common salmon diseases

- Sea lice
- Pancreas Disease (PD)
- Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS)
- Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN virus)
- Heart and Skeletal Muscle inflammation (HSM)
- Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA)
- Gill Disease (GD)


Outline sea lice

- Several species
- Sea water
- Can cause lesions, secondary bacterial infections
- Controlled through good husbandry, management, use of cleaner fish
- Where necessary, licensed medicines


Outline Pancreas Disease in salmon

- Salmonid Alphavirus (present in Europe)
- Contagious
- Reduces appetite, causes muscle and pancreas lesions, lethargy, elevated mortality
- Seawater
- Affects Atlantic salmon and Rainbow trout


Outline the control of Pancreas disease

- Management and mitigation practices
- Vaccination where PD presents risk, provides some additional level of protection


Outline Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia

- Intracellular bacteria
- Mainly Chile, also Norway, Ireland, UK
- Lethargy, appetite loss, elevated mortality


Outline the control of Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia

- Vaccination
- Licensed antibiotics


Outline Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis in salmon

- Widely reported
- Contagious
- Mortality if not properly managed
- Atlantic salmon fry, smolts and larger fish post-transfer affected


Outline the control of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

- Vaccination
- Optimise husbandry and biosecurity
- Selection of IPN resistant fish


Outline Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in salmon

- Norway and Scotland
- Reduced appetite, abnormal behaviour
- But low mortality
- generally affects fish in first year in seawater


Outline the control of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation

Good husbandry and management practices


Outline Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA)

- Virus
- Contagious
- Causes lethargy, anaemia and significant mortality in seawater with poor management


Outline the control of ISA

- Vaccines in high risk areas
- Culling or harvesting of affected fish
- Other biosecurity and mitigation measures


Outline Gill Disease in salmon

- Any gill condition occurring in seawater
- Changes caused by different infectious agents e.g. amoeba, virus, bacteria
- Also environmental factors e.g. algae, jelly-fish blooms
- Little known about cause and to what extend infectious or environmental factors are primary or secondary to cause of disease


List environmental impacts associated with aquaculture

- Water abstraction
- Suspended solids/organic loading
- Reduced O2
- Nitrogenous waste products
- Chemicals/drugs
- Spread of enzootic pathogens
- introduction/movement of alien species
- Genetic contamination
- Water quality and density
- Sea lice


Outline water abstraction by fish production

depending on production size and size, large proportions of water may be extracted from natural sources


Outline how fish production increases suspended solids/organic loading

Water returning to natural water systems will contain higher proportions of organic matter


Outline how fish production affects the presence of nitrogenous waste products in water

Large populations of fish can result in higher levels of nitrogen in water and eutrophication


Outline the effects of fish production on the presence of chemicals/drugs in water

Residues of drugs/chemicals used in fish farming could be present in water ad contaminate the environment


Outline how fish production may lead to the spread of enzootic pathogens

- Possibility that having increased fish population in area may favour the spread of enzootic diseases
- No strong evidence supporting this except for sea lice


Outline the effects of fish production with regards to alien species

- Large scale movement of animals between countries into non-native area
- Higher risk of spreading fish diseases globally
- Introduction of new diseases


Outline the effects of fish production on genetic contamination

Evidence of reduced genetic variability in salmon due to interbreeding between farmed and wild salmon


Outline why water quality and density must be controlled in fish production

- Most important factors are dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved solids and ammonia
- DO required to support metabolism
- Main excretory products are ammonia and CO2
- Ammonia toxic to fish


Outline how water quality is controlled in fish production

- Mechanical aerators, air lines, liquid oxygen systems to maintain DO
- Higher water temp increases metabolism and thus DO requirement and increases excretion
- pH increase leads to increase in free ammonia
- Water flow is key to reducing waste products in water (14.42-21L/min/tonne recommended)


Describe sea lice

- Lepeophtheirus salmonis
- Ubiquitous crustacean macroparasite
- Directly transmitted through planktonic larvae
- £300 million/year
- Fish farming associated with pathogen amplification
- Concerns on long and short term impacts on wild stocks as may also be pathogenic to wild fish under natural conditions


Outline the mitigation of environmental impacts of fish production

- Careful water use and controls on water discharged to inland waters
- Prevent escapees
- Appropriate pathogen control and prevention, and post-outbreak management
- Control of fish introduction (use of sterile stock - triploids)


Outline the controls on water discharged to inland waters from fish production

- Settlement statiosn to reduce organic loading
- Followed by water treatment and oxygenation


What are some environmental benefits of controlled hunting?

- Pest control (pigeons)
- Population control (deer)


What are some national economic benefits of controlled hunting?

- Shooters spend £2.5 billion each year on goods and services
- Shooting supports equivalent of 74, 000 full time jobs


What are the main products of wild game?

- Velvet antler
- Leather
- Feathers
- Meat


List the legislation that applies to all game meat

- Regulation EC 178/2002
- Regulation EC 852/2004
- Regulation EC 853/2004 section IV of annex III
- Regulation 2073/2005


What is covered by Regulation EC 178/2002?

General food law requirements, including traceability of food, feed and food producing animals


What is covered by Regulation EC 852/2004 regarding wild game?

Sets general hygiene rules applying to ALL food businesses


What is covered by Regulation EC 853/2004 regarding wild game?

- Additional hygiene rules to businesses producing food of animal origin
- Section IV of annex III covers wild game in approve game handling establishments (AGHEs)


What is covered by Regulation EC 2073/2005 regarding wild game?

Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs


What are domestic ungulates?

Domestic bovine, porcine, ovine and caprine animals and domestic solipeds


What are lagomorphoes?

Rabbits, hares and rodents


What is meant by wild game?

- Wild ungulates and lagomorphs, and other land mammals hunted for human consumption
- Defined as wild game under applicable law in member state concerned
- Wild birds hunted for human consumption
- Includes mammals living enclosed territory under conditions of freedom similar to those of wild game


What is small wild game?

Wild game birds and lagomorphs living freely in the wild


What is large wild game?

Wild land mammals living freely in the wild, that do not fall within definition of small wild game


What is meant by park game?

Refers to deer herds that roam freely in protected park lands, fall into wild game definition as are not farmed


What is required before the shooting of wild game?

- Stalking
- Hunter must observe game and note abnormalities
- Assess: level of alertness, carriage of head, limbs, general condition and quality of movement


Where can wild meat be processed?

- Only Authorised Game Handling Establishments (AGHEs)


Who performs the AMI of wild game?

- No official AMI
- Declaration from hunter required with large game


Who performs the PMI of wild game?

- Large: OV or MHI in AGHE, or trained hunter in the field if sold directly to establishments e.g. pub
- Small: only performed on 50 carcasses or 5% of animals per submitted batch if taken to AGHE, otherwise trained hunter (but no declaration needed)


What are the legal requirements where small quantities of wild game are supplied to the final consumer/retailer?

- Not all legislation applies as are not a food business
- Still responsible for safe meat
- No vet inspection, local authority only


What are the legal requirements where are supplying game in fur or feather to an AGHE?

- Are a food business
- Need to be registered with local authroty and comply with regulations
- No vet inspection needed, but need Trained Person Declaration


What are the legal requirements where are larder owner or transporter of game meat in fur or feather to an AGHE?

- Comply with hygiene requirements regarding transport
- Registered with Local Authority
- Ensure trained declaration available to FBO at AGHE


What are the legal requirements if you shoot and cook game and supply to the final consumer?

- Inform LA
- Comply with hygiene requirements
- Have HACCP based system in place


What are the legal requirements if the main business is preparation of game meat from brought in carcasses which then sell onward to wholesale and retail consumers?

- Are a food business
- Contact FSA to obtain AGHE license instead of registering with LA
- Comply with hygiene regulations and HACCP based system in place
- Only accept large game that has been examined by Trained Hunter


What is meant by a Trained Hunter?

- Someone with sufficient knowledge of pathology of wild game and production and handling of wild game meat after hunting to undertake initial examination of wild game on the spot
- Does not have to be the hunter
- training provided by Lantra, National Gamekeepers Organisation (NGO)
- Qualified professionals e.g. vets, doctors, Environmental Health Officers or Meat Inspectors will automatically be qualified as Trained Persons


What must be included in the inspection by a trained person?

- Examination of body, and in case of large wild game, any viscera removed
- If unexpectedly unavailable, all viscera except intestines and stomach must accompany the body


What must be included on the Trained Person/Hunter Declaration?

- Date, time and place of killing
- Must state: non suspicion of enviromental contamination, no abnormal behaviour before killing, no abnormal characteristics found during examination
- Numbered with individual licence number, carcass identification
- Attached to carcass or clearly correlated to relevant carcass


What are the declaration requirements for small wild game?

- NO declaration required
- If abnormal behaviour, characteristic or environmental contamination suspected, must report to competent authority
- Recommended that information attached as label to trays in which small wild game is sent to AGHE


What are the requirements regarding the viscera of feral wild boar?

- Susceptible to Trichinellosis
- Head (not tusks) and diaphragm must accompany body in all cases
- OV at AGHE will ensure Trichinella testing is completed


What are the requirements regarding the viscera of wild game deer?

- With declaration, body need not be accompanies by head or viscera
- Without, head (except antlers and horns), heart, lungs and liver but not stomach and intestines, must accompany the body


Outline the steps in processing of wild game once in the AGHE

- Prevent cross-contamination by separation either in time or space of operations carried out on different species
- Separate facilities for reception and storage of unskinned carcasses of farmed game slaughtered at farm and wild game
- Ensure all pre-requisites for building, equipment, personnel and raw material re hygiene must be in place
- Inspection team required


Outline the AGHE specific requirements

- Separation of skinned/unskinned carcasses
- Separation of large/small wild game
- ABP do not need staining, no SRM
- Receive daily inspections by MHI, monthly by OV or when required


What are the temperature requirements for the storage of wild game?

- 7degreesC large game
- 4degreesC small game
- 3degreesC offal


What are the general requirements regarding the processing of wild game?

- All hygiene pre-requisites and temperature requirements met
- HACCP in place
- Traceable
- Audited by vet from FSA


What are the advantages of farmed game over wild?

- Meat keeps its organoleptic wild-game qualities regardless of of food
- Available all year round, not just hunting season


What is meant by farmed game birds?

Means farmed birds, including birds not considered domestic but which are farmed as domestic animals with the exception of ratites


What is meant by farmed game?

Farmed ratities and farmed land mammals other than those referred to as domestic ungulates


What are ratites?

Flightless birds e.g. ostriches, rhea, casowari, kiwis


Compare the AMI and PMI of farmed game species and correlating domestic species

- If farmed and killed at abattoir, is same as red meat
- AMI by OV, PMI by OV or MHI
- If farmed and killed on farm: AMI by AV or OV, PMI by OV or MHI at approved abattoir


Compare the FCI requirements for farmed game and wild game

- FCI required for farmed game animals
- If killed at farm, this is called "Health Certificate"
- Not required for wild game


Describe the dressing of wild game

- Bled immediately after shooting
- Tie oesophagus
- Free anus by cutting in full circle
- Sticking not routinely conducted in wild game and head/neck shot deer = retained blood in carcass


What is examined in the hunter inspection of wild game?

- Age, sex, nutritional state, bruising/haemorrhage, indications of faecal contamination or decomposition, local or general oedema, efficiency of bleeding, abnormality of bones/joints/musculature
- Abnormalities of consistency or colour, condition of pleura and peritoneum
- Signs indicating presence of veterinary drug residues or poisoning
- Signs of disease


What organs are examined in wild game PMI?

- Spleen
- Liver
- Lungs
- Heart
- Kidneys
- Reproductive organs
- Head
- Feet
- Whole carcass


Describe the PMI inspection of hte spleen

- Examine surface and size
- Possible diseases: anthrax ifenlarged AND very dark, animal also bleeding from some or all of its natural orifices
- Enlarged spleen may be result of seasonal changes of past infection


Describe the wild game PMI inspection of the liver

- Examine ortal lymph nodes, surface and substance
- Diseases: liver fluke, TB, hepatitis, Cysticercus tenuicollis, Hydatid cyst, fatty change, tumour, abscesses


Describe the wild game PMI inspection of the lungs

- Examine right and left bronchial lymph nodes
- Examine mediastinal lymph nodes
- Examine and palpate lungs
- Diseases: pneumonia, pleurisy, TB, hydatid cysts, lung worms, tumours, abscesses


Describe the wild game PMI inspection of the heart

- Open pericardium and examine heart muscle
- Diseases: pericarditis, septic pericarditis, cysts


Describe the wild game PMI inspection of the kidneys

- Expose and examine external surface
- Diseases: hydronephrosis, nephritis, cysts


Describe the wild game PMI inspection of reproductive organs

- Examine male and female reproductive tract
- Diseases: tumours, abscesses, retained foeti


Describe the wild game PMI of the head

- Examine lips and tongue (FMD)
- Examine jaw bones (actinomycosis)
- Examine retropharyngeal and submaxillary lymph nodes (B, abscesses, actinobacillosis)


Describe the wild game PMI of the feet

- Examine between the cleats of feet


Describe the wild game PMI of the whole carcass

- Examine internal surfaces
- Abscesses, TB, bruising (extensive and severe), oedema, pyrexia, emaciation (pathological) and uraemia


Where are Warble Flies notifiable?

- In Scotland only
- Affect cattle, deer and horses but is not a notifiable disease in deer


What are the consequences of identification of warble flies, or liver fluke in deer?

- Partial rejection of affected area/organ
- Unless jaundice is present with liver fluke (complete rejection)


What are the guidelines regarding the consumption of road kill?

- Not allowed to enter the human food chain
- Animal health status unknown
- Significant contamination


What are the notifiable diseases of wild boar?

- Classical and African Swine fever
- Anthrax
- Swine vesicular disease
- Teschen disease
- Vesicular stomatitis
- Aujeszky's disease
- TB


What are the notifiable diseases in deer?

- Bovine TB
- Bluetongue
- Epizootic haemorrhagc virus disease
- Brucellosis
- Anthrax
- Chronic Wasting Disease


Describe tuberculosis in deer

- Mostly foundin carcass and visceral lymph nodes
- May also be in lungs and kidneys
- Purulent material in affected LNs
- Casefied lesions less common
- In roe deer, TB lesions may calcify in the lungs, spleen and liver, easily confused with Avian TB (common in deer)


Describe the steps following suspicion of FMD in wild game

- Trained hunter notifies local divisional Veterinary manager (DVM)
- If still attached to in-fur carcass, FSA stagff may inspect mouth, gums and tongue for presence of blister and/or ulcers if brought to abattoir


Describe the steps following suspicion of anthrax in AGHE

- Check declaration from trained hunter for abnormal haemorrhages detected during gralloching
- OV to check spleen for signs of congestion, splenomegaly
- OV to check red offal for signs of abnormal congesting/extended haemorrhages
- Has never been reported in any species of deer in UK


Outline the risk and control against Lyme disease when dealing with wild game carcasses

- Maintain all GHP when dressing carcass in field or elsewhere
-Transmitted by Ixodes ricinus
- Common in deer


Where are wild game carcasses stored?

Larder/collection centre


What are the functions of wild game larders?

- Initial cooling of carcass
- Provide temporary storage to handle wild game carcasses under hygienic conditions prior to dispatch to the GHE or similar establishment


What is required in wild game larders?

- Hygiene
- Separation of in-fur/feather and skinned carcasses, and eviscerated/un-eviscerated
- Ventilation
- Traceability
- Inspections by LA


Outline small game handling

- Hung up or allow air circulation to allow heat to disperse as quickly as possible to bring to 4degreesC
- Game carts allow air flow around product, protect from contamination, pests and weather
- Product transferred to larder in timely manner to avoid deterioration


Outline the transport of small wild game

- Vehicles should be designed, constructed and maintained to enable game to be transported in hygienic conditions and minimise risk of deterioration of product
- Regulated by local authority


Outline the requirements of small game larders

- Refrigerated
- Adequate hanging space for numbers expected
- pest and rodent proofing
- Traceability system to identify day and location of shoot
- If no chill facilities available, procedures in place to transport product for processing within reasonable timescale


Outline the requirements for dry plucking

- Remove diseases/damaged birds prior to plucking
- Avoid breaking skin on birds during plucking
- Provide appropriate supervision and use trained/experienced staff
- Separation of plucked/unplucked birds
- Provide adequate handwashing facilities in actual defeathering area
- All staff wash hands at regular intervals during working period
- PPE and clean selves at regular intervals during working period
- Premises in good condition and proofed against pests


Outline some PMI findings in small wild game

- Signs of decomposition (greening/wet appearance under feathers)
- Fungal growth on surface of carcasses
- Fly strike
- Contamination
- Damage (foreign bodies may be from hunting or not)
- Abnormal odour
- Abnormalities of joints (partial rejection)
- Oedema, ascites
- Emaciation
- Generalised presence of tumours or abscesses


Outline some PMI findings of wild game birds

- Bumblefoot
- Coccidiosis
- Septicaemia
- Histomoniasis (black head, enlarged caecae, typical liver lesions)
- Fleas, lice, mites
- Avian TB in eviscerated birds
- Trauma


What are the notifiable diseases of small wild game?

- None in lagomorphs
- Birds: Newcastle disease, HPAI, LPAIH5 and H7, paramyxovirus in pigeons
- where 5 or more wild birds dead in same location, report to APHA


Outline the zoonotic risk from small wild game

- Risk from handled carcasses and diseased offal of lagomorphs
- Mainly vector transmitted diseases e.g. Q fever, Lyme disease, Salmonella, Campylobacter


What are the marking requirements for game meat ready for sale?

- Oval Health mark applied on deer and wild boar carcasses
- Oval identification mark applied to packaging on small game