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Flashcards in Food technology 3 Deck (100)
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Outline the importance of bees

- Honey production
- Pollination
- Medicinal products
- Cosmetics


Outline reasons for the declining be population in developing countries

- Change in agricultural practice
- Monocultures unattractive to bees, food is not available throughout year
- Addition of pesticides
- Introduction of diseases and parasites


What is the purpose of the National Bee Unit?

To achieve a sustainable and healthy population of honey bees for pollination and honey production in England and Wales, via strengthened partnership working between Government and other stakeholders


Outline the structure of honey bee colonies

- 60,000 workers, 2000 drones, 1 queen
- In winter, 10,000 workers, no drones 1 queen


Outline the honey bee lifecycle

- Each egg laid in hexagonal wax cell, hatch into larvae
- Not all eggs treated equally
- Workers "cap" cells when larvae are ready to pupate
- Adult emerges at different times depending on caste
- Queen: 16 days, workers 21 days, drones 24 days


Outline honey bee feeding

- Nectar, is mainly sucrose. Converted to glucose and fructose by invertase
- Nectar regurgitates into storage cells
- Pollen mixed with nectar, collected in baskets, packed into cells by worker "house" bees
- Workers forage for food towards end of life


Outline the structure of honey bee hives

- British National Hive used
- Series of stacked boxes
- Used for brooding and honey production
- Entrance at bottom into brood box, then queen excluder, then honey supers then wooden crown board and waterproof roof


What is the function of the brood box in a bee hive?

Is the heart of the colony where the queen lays her eggs


What is the function of the queen excluder in a bee hive?

Prevents access of the queen to the levels above but workers are able to access. Allows storage of excess honey in honey supers


Describe honey production in the hive

- Nectar brought in, stored in honey supers
- Dilute sugar solution
- Thermoregulation and ventilation by bees to evaporate water from solution
- Once approx 17% water, capped with wax to seal
- Good hive produces 60lbs in a season, average is 25lbs


Outline the harvesting of honey

- July and August
- Honey released by sliding long knife over surface of cells
- Remove wax cap and frames placed in centrifuge to spin out honey
- Must not remove too much as large colonies will starve
- Honey filtered and pasteurised before sale


Describe the UK honey market

- 80% reliant on foreign imports
- Main EU suppliers: Germany, Hungary, Spain and France
- Main Third Country suppliers: Argentina, New Zealand, China, Mexico, India
- Most honey is blended


Describe migratory bee keeping

- Type of flower foraged impacts flavour and texture of product
- Heather highly valued
- May move to these areas (Yorkshire Moors)
- Can be successful if manage well, good bees, good livestock management and good weather conditions


What are the main microbiological and pharmacological residue issues associated with honey production?

Clostridium botulinum and veterinary residues such as streptomycin


Describe the issues associated with Clostridium botulinum in honey

- Viable spores found in honey
- Infant botulism is a risk (paralysis and death)
- Immature gut flora cannot compete
- Do not feed to children <12 months old


Describe the issues associated with pharmacological residues in honey

- No MRLs for antimicrobials in honey sold in the EU as are not permitted to use antimicrobials
- In some cases APHA permits use of oxytetracycling BUT cannot be sold for 6 months
- Few products are authorised for apiculture
- Chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracyclines and sulphonamides are tested for, has led to some import bans where found
- Risk of pesticides also being present (organophosphates, organochlorines, metals e.g. cadmium and lead)


Who has responsibility for residue testing of honey in the UK?

VMD via the NBU


What factors may affect bee colony productivity?

- Management (host genetics, pesticides, husbandry, nutrition)
- Environment (pesticides, climate, nutrition)
- Pests and diseases (varroa, nosema, viruses)
- Are all inter linked


What is the role of vets in bee colony management?

- Bees are vital to economy and food security
- Control of diseases and pests therefore important
- Use of licensed therapeutic products
- Drug resistance and residues potential


What legislation covers the control of bee disease?

Bees Act 1980
- Orders from ministers and sec of state to control diseases and pests affecting honey bees
- Provides powers of entry for authorised persons
-Statutory orders list diseases against which statutory action must be taken


List the important diseases of bees and state whether they are notifiable or not

- European Foul Brood (notifiable)
- American Foul Brood (notifiable)
- Tropilaelaps mites (notifiable)
- Small hive beetle (notifiable)
- Varroa destructor
- Nosema
- Asian hornet


Outline European Foul Brood

- Melisossocus plutonius bacteria most important cause (are others)
- Internation
- Affects brood before capped and develops into adults
- Brood exhibits shotgun pattern
- Shook-swarm technique can be used in mild cases
- Destroy colony in severe cases
- Occasionally AHVHA has allowed use of oxytetracycline to treat EFB, but is not first choice


Describe the appearance of larvae affected by European Foul Brood

- Dead larvae
- Brown or tan colour
- Melted appearance


What is the shook-swarm technique?

Transfer of adults to new hive and destruction of old comb and hive


Outline American Foul Brood

- Paenibacillus larvae, Gram +ve spore forming bacteria
- More severe than EFB
- Brood die after being capped
- Does not affect adult bees
- Larvae infected by consumption of contaminated feed, multiplies in gut until larvae die
- Spores can be viable for >40 years, easily transferred to other hives by fomites or bees


Outline the control of AFB

- Destroy colony, burn equipment under supervision of inspector
- Good biosecurity, acquitision of bees from reputable sources
- Not sharing equipment with other bee keepers
- Antimicrobials not used


How is AFB diagnosed?

- Ropiness test
- Stir contents of cell with small probe, as probe is pulled out "rope" 1-3cm long will form if AFB present


Outline Tropilaelaps

- Parasitic mites affecting developing brood and adults
- Mites feed on haemolymph of developing larvae, leads to brood patterns, stunted adults and potential colony collapse
- Abnormal brood development (deformed wing virus in developing larvae)


What are the consequences of Tropilaelaps infection?

- Abnormal development of brood
- Deformed wings
- Cannot forage for food
- Colonyy starves
- Is notifiable


Outline the control of Tropilaelaps

- Exact geographical range unknown but currently not found in UK
- Mainly SE Asia
- Import control is main defence