Flashcards in ABPs and SRMs Deck (50)
What are ABPs?
- The entire body, part of animal or product of animal origin not intended for human consumption
Give examples of edible co-products that may be sent for human consumption or become ABPs
- Stomach, bladders, intestines
- Gelatine and collagen
- Without furhter processing will become ABPs
How are ABPs categorised?
Category 1 (high risk) - 3 (low risk)
What ABPs are classed as category 1?
- All SRMs
- Body or part of animal containing SRM at point of disposal
- All parts of animals suspected as being infected by TSEs
- Animal material collected from waste water drain screenings in ruminant slaughterhouses and other premises in which SRM is removed
- Animals killed in context of TSE eradication measures
- Wild animals suspected of being infected with zoonotic diseases (e.g. bTB, FMD)
- Products contaminated with prohibited substances or containing residues of environmental contaminants
- International catering waste, dead pets, lab animals, carcasses and dead zoo animals
Describe category 1 of ABPs and its labelling
- Highest risk, for disposal only
- Dyed blue if contain SRM, black if not
- Container labelled " Category 1, for disposal only"
Describe Category 2 of ABP and its labelling
- High risk, unfit for human or animal consumption
- Dyed black
- Labelled "category 2, not for animal consumption"
What ABPs are classed as Category 2?
- Sludge from waste water drain screenings in non-ruminant slaughterhouse
- Products containing residues of authorised veterinary drugs and contaminants exceeding permitted levels
- Material imported from Third countries or member states not complying with EU veterinary requirements
- Animals (or parts of) that dies other than slaughter for human consumption
- Products from animals declared unfit for human consumption due to foreign bodies in products
- Manure, digestive tract contents
- Blood from any animal that has not passed AMI
- Rejection due to pathology
Describe Category 3 ABP and its labelling
- Low risk, unfit for human consumption
- No dying required
- Labelled "not for human consumption"
What is classed as a Category 3 ABP?
- Fit for consumption but not desired e.g. blood
- Specific parts of animal if passed AMI
- PMI rejections not posing risk to animal health
Which parts of an animal can be disposed of as Category 3 ABPs if animal passed AMI?
- Head and feathers of poultry
- Pig bristles
- Hides and skins
- Blood of pigs, poultry and ruminants
What is a potential use of Category 3 ABPs?
Can be used for raw pet food under certain requirements
What are the requirements for the production of raw pet food using Cat 3 ABPs?
- Rejected at PMI for reason not posing risk to human or animal health
- Poultry heads passed AMI
- Storage and transport <7C
- Labelled as "pet food only" during transport
- Packaged in new packaging preventing leakage
- Prevent contamination throughout production until point of sale
- Sampled for Salmonella and Enterobacteria (not at abattoir)
What is the purpose of controlling ABPs?
- Prevent entry of risky material into food chain
- ANimal and human health
What pieces of legislation regulate ABPs?
- EC 1069/2009
- EC 142/2011
- Animal By-Products Enforcement (England) Regulations 2013 SI No 2952/2013
- Animal By-Products Enforcement (Wales) regulations 2014 SI No 2014/517 (W60)
- EC 852, 853, 854/2004
Who is responsible for ensuring ABP regulations are followed?
- Al except EC 854/2004 are checked by FBO
- Exception is checked by OV/competent authority
What are the responsibilities of the FBO, APHA, LA and OV with regards to ABPs?
- FBO: due diligence
- APHA: licencing of ABP plants
- LA: transport of ABP and supervision of ABP plants
- OV: supervision and enforcement at the abattoir
What are the disposal routes for Category 1 ABPs?
- Approved incinerators
- Pressure sterilisation followed by permanent marking and landfill
- Fuel combustion at approved combustion plant
- Burial at authorised landfill
What are the disposal routes for Category 2 ABPs?
- Same as for Category 1 plus others
- After processing can be used as fertilisers/soil improvers
- Fuel combustion
- Medical devices
- safe industrial technical uses
- Manure to land, gut-room waste to non-pasture land (no processing neded)
What routes of disposal can be used for category 3 ABPs?
- Same as cat 1 and 2 plus
- Pet food plants
- Technical plants (pharmaceutical)
- Biogas plants
Describe the process of pressure sterilisation of cat 1 and 2 ABPs
- 133C for 20 mins without interruption
- Maintain pressure of 3 bars by removing all air from sterilisation chamber and replacing with steam
What are the ABP disposal exceptions?
- All can go for diagnostic, educational and research purposes and taxidermy
- All categories for feeding of endangered species (not needed in UK)
- All for surgical procedures on live animals on farm
- Cat 2 and 3: feeding zoo/circus animals, reptiles/birds of prey, treatment at approved collection centre for feeding to hounds, approved kennels and maggot farms
What are the storage requirements for ABPs at the abattoir?
- Leak proof containers
- Closely fitting lids
- Impervious, easy to clean and disinfect
- Lidded, separated from fit for human consumption products
- Well maintained
- If left out too long, may be moved from cat 2 to cat 1/cat 3 to cat 2
What are some exceptions regarding the staining of ABPs?
- cat 3 do not need staining
- Whole bodies, teaching/research material, dispute over category, OV inspection pending, blood, manure/digestive content are not stained
Describe the collection and transport of ABPs from abattoirs
- Dispatched to approved premises only
- Person collecting needs to be licensed for that category
What are SRMs?
Specified risk materials
- Parts of ruminant likely to pose a risk of infectivity if the animal from which it comes was infected with a TSE disease
What are the SRMs of cattle at all ages?
- Last 4 metres of small intestine
What are the additional SRMs of cattle over 12 months old?
- Skull (excluding mandible) including brain and eyes
- Spinal cord
What are the additional SRMs of cattle over 30 months old?
- Vertebral column (including dorsal root ganglion but excluding vertebrae of tail, spinous and transverse process of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, median sacral crest and wings of sacrum)
What are the labelling requirements for cattle over 30 months old?
Red stripe on lable
What is the procedure for SRMs where a cow lacks identification?
Vertebral column will be removed
What are the SRMs of sheep and goats at all ages?
What are the additional SRMs of sheep and goats over 12 months old?
- Skull, including brain, eyes and tonsils
- Spinal cord
What legislation covers the BSE testing requirements?
- EC 999/2001 (as amended) (law regarding monitoring, surveillance and eradication of TSEs)
- TSE England) (No2) Regulations 2010 as amended
- EC 854/2004 (official controls) as amended
What individuals are required to undergo TSE testing?
- Cattle for human and not for human consumption
- Sheep and goats for human consumption and not for human consumption
- Infected flocks
Outline the TSE testing requirements
- All cattle which die or are killed other than for human consumption aged over 48 months must be tested
- All emergency slaughter animals or animals found sick at AMI aged over 48 months
- Animals born before 1st August 1996
- No sampling in EU healthy animals, except those from Romania, Bulgaria/Croatia
Outline the process of BSE testing of cattle in slaughterhouses
- Brain stem taken by FBO, trained by APHA
- Dispatched to laboratory
- Carcass and offal and other products only release on receipt of negative test result
- Not health marked until result recieved
- Retain securely
- Ensure traceability
Outline the sampling requirements for BSE testing
- Carried out by FBO, trained by APHA
- FSA agrees RMOP with FBO
- Sampling tools disposed of as clinical waste
- Sampling carried out one at a time
Outline the requirements for slaughter scheduling for BSE testing
- Scheduled to minimise risk of cross contamination (e.g. placed last in line)
- OV informed by FBO if casualty animal is coming in
What is the role of the vet in relation to ABP?
- Enforcement of ABP
- In the abattoir: FSA on behald of DEFRA, Scottish Government and Welsh government (risk based enforcement, verbal, written , Statutory notices)
- Outside abattoir: trading standards, APHA, reporting of suspected breaches along line including transport
- Supervision, communication of findings and enforcement of regulations
Outline the sampling of sheep for TSE testing
- Not all require testing
- Random selection over 18 months old, size of sample depends on population size
- Testing required for all scrapie suspected cases and animals DOA or DIL
What is meant by the "pluck"?
Heart, lungs and liver
Compare the appearance of sheep, cow and pigs livers
- Sheep: 3 lobes (L, R, caudal), L and R lobes well separated
- Pigs: 5 lobes
- Cow: 3 lobes, (L, R, caudal), L and R poorly separated
Compare the appearance of sheep, cow and pig kidneys
- Sheep: classical bean shape, small
- Cow: very lobulated, no renal pelvis
- Pig: less curved, more elongated and flattened
Compare the appearance of sheep, cow and pig spleen
- Sheep: triangular
- Cow: elongated and oval
- Pig: elongated, ends more pointed
Why does the identification of hydatid cysts in sheep on PMI in lead to rejection as cat 2?
Infectious to dogs which can then infect humans and sheep via proglottids in faeces
What treatment would allow beef infected with Cysticercus bovis to go for human consumption?
- Only if it is a single, localised infection
- After freezing for 14 days at -10degreesC to kill parasite
Why are emaciated carcasses rejected as category 2?
Emaciation may be due to welfare or systemic disease but exact cause unknown
What is the outcome for a bovine liver with multiple abscesses on PMI?
- Cat 2 rejection of carcass as may be systemic infection process
- May also be due to diet so need to review diet on farm (increased risk with acidosis)
Why can pig livers affected by Ascaris suum be rejected as cat 3?
- No risk to humans or animals
- Rejected only due to appearance