General Chemistry Chapter 8: The Gas Phase Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry Chapter 8: The Gas Phase Deck (23)
1

Are gases fluids?

yes; they conform to the shape of their containers

2

Gases are compressible or nah?

yes -- hella

3

What are the variables of gas systems?

temperature, pressure, volume, and number of moles

4

1 atm = ? mmHg = ? torr = ? kPa

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa

5

What does a simple mercury barometer measure?

incident pressure

6

standard temp and pressure

273 K and 1 atm

7

What do equations for ideal gases assume?

negligible mass and volume of gas molecules

8

ideal gas law

describes the relationship between the four variables of the gas state for an ideal gas

9

Avogadro's principle

a special case of the ideal gas law for which the pressure and temperature are held constant; it shows a direct relationship between the number of moles of gas and volume.

10

Boyle's law

temperature and number of moles are held constant

11

Charles's law

pressure and number of moles are held constant

12

Gay-lussac's law

volume and number of moles are kept constant

13

Dalton's law of partial pressure

states that individual gas components of a mixture of gases will exert individual pressures in proportion to their mole fractions

14

Henry's law

the amount of gas dissolved in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas at the surface of a solution.

15

Kinetic molecular theory

attempts to explain the behavior or gas particles.

16

Assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory

- negligible volume
- no intermolecular attractions or repulsions
- undergo random collisions with each other and the walls of the container
- collisions between gas particles and with the wall of the container are elastic.
- average kinetic energy of gas particles is directly proportional to temperature

17

Graham's law

describes the behavior of gas diffusion or effusion, stating that gases with lower molar masses will diffuse or effuse faster than gases with higher molar masses at the same temperature.

18

Diffusion

spreading out of particles from high to low concentration.

19

Effusion

movement of fas from one compartment to another through a small opening under pressure

20

Real gases

deviate from ideal behavior

21

moderately high pressures, low volumes or low temperatures... real gases:

occupy less volume than predicted because they have intermolecular attractions

22

extremely high pressures, low volumes or low pressure... real gases:

more volume than predicted because they occupy physical space.

23

Van der Waals equation of state

used to correct the ideal gas law for intermolecular attractions (a) and molecular volume (b)