General Gynaecology Flashcards Preview

Olivia MD3 2nd semester > General Gynaecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Gynaecology Deck (86):
1

what are some causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea?

endometriosis
ovarian cysts
leiomyoma
uterine polyps
IUD copper
PID
adenomyosis
foreign body
cervical stenosis (cyclical pain without period)

2

what are some causes of abnormal uterine bleeding?

gynaecological causes: e.g. fibroids/PID/adenomyosis/pregnancy related

non-gynae causes think BED
BLOOD- haematological malignancies, coagulopathies, ITP (platelet dysfunction)
ENDOCRINE- prolactinoma, PCOS, hyper/hypothyroidsm
DRUGS- anticoagulants, OCP, steroids, HRT, chemotherapy

3

how to treat trichomonas vaginalis?

metronidazole

4

what are the symptoms of trichomonas vaginalis?

frothy green vaginal discharge
dyspareunia
'strawberry cervix'
or asymptomatic

5

where would you find mittlesmertz pain usually?

in the iliac fossa

6

Describe dysmenorrhoea pain

cramping pain during/before/post menstruation in the suprapubic area sometimes radiating to the back or down the thigh

7

Describe endometriosis triad of symptoms

1. cyclical menstrual pain or chronic pelvic pain worse during periods

2. Pain is provoked- deep dyspareunia, pain with insertion of tampon

3. infertility

8

in what age group is adenomyosis prominent?

middle aged 30-40s women

9

what are the symptoms of adenomyosis

heavy menstrual bleeding
dysmenorrhoea

10

what are the risk factors for adenomyosis?

increasing age
multiparous

11

define menopause?

period in which a woman's menstrual period ceases and they no longer can bear children- generally diagnosed 1 yr after last menstrual period

or simply, the final menstrual period

12

average age of menopause

50 yrs (range 45-55yrs)

13

define premature menopause

menopause in women less than 40 yrs

14

what are some symptoms of menopause?

reduced libido
atrophic vaginitis
mood changes
hot flushes
sleep disturbance
tender breasts

15

what are some things you want to exclude with irregular or heavy bleeding in an older woman?

endometrial hyperplasia/cancer
fibroids
polyps

16

define early menopause?

menopause in 40-45 yrs old

17

If a menopausal woman still has their uterus and is about to commence HRT therapy, what hormones are used and why?

Cyclical oestrogen + progesterone because unopposed oestrogen causes endometrial hyperplasia

18

Risks of HRT

cardiovascular risk
increased risk of breast cancer
increase of breakthrough bleeding (leading to unnecessary ix)
increased risk of cholecystitis

19

what are the contraindications to HRT?

Absolute: oestrogen dependent neoplasms (endometrial/breast Ca), vascular issues (IHD, recurrent thromboembolism).

Relative: Hx of CAD, HTN, vaginal bleeding, active liver disease, active SLE

20

what are some causes of premature menopause?

iatrogenic- surgery/radiotherapy/chemotherapy

genetic- turners/fragile x/etc

autoimmune causes

unknown

21

how long should HRT be used for premature menopause?

until 51 yrs

22

define post menopausal bleeding?

any vaginal bleeding more than 1 yr after last menstrual period

23

what are some common causes of post menopausal bleeding

endometrial or cervical cancer
atrophic vaginitis
exogenous oestrogen
polyps and fibroids
endometrial hyperplasia

24

what are some rarer causes of post menopausal bleeding?

ovarian cancer
prolapse

25

what are some questions we should ask during an interview regarding post menopausal bleeding

check for trauma
check for night sweats
check for abnormal vaginal discharge
check for abnormal weight loss
check for change in bladder bowel function
check medications- tamoxifen and other meds
check FMH of endometrial cancer

26

what is a key risk factor for endometrial cancer

obesity

27

what are some non-pharmacological ways of managing hot flushes?

Lifestyle changes such as stopping smoking, reducing alcohol/caffeine intake and losing weight may reduce symptoms in some women. Regular exercise and avoiding triggers (eg hot drinks) may also help.

28

describe your pharmacological mx of dysmenorrhoea?

NSAIDs like mefanamic acid = first line

OCP

29

in a healthy 45+ yr old woman with signs of menopause, do you need to do a FSH to confirm?

no

generally dx clinically based on 1 yr since FMP and menopausal symptoms

30

in a woman who has at a hysterectomy, how might we determine menopause?

FSH serum concentration

31

at what age can we use the OCP up to?

age 50-51

32

risk factors for endometrium hyperplasia?

obesity, PCOS, nulliparity, infertility, tamoxifen use

33

What should we do for a woman who has had a Pap smear showing a lower grade squamous lesion?

They should have her repeat test at 12 months and if it again shows low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and they should be referred for a colposcopy

If they are aged 30 years or more than they should be offered ever pay Pap smear at six months or a colposcopy

34

How might we follow up a woman who's had a previous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?

Cervical cytology plus HPV testing should be performed 12 months post treatment and annually thereafter until both tests are negative on 2 consecutive occasions

35

what is the relationship between fragile x and premature menopause?

primary ovarian insufficiency

36

a menopausal woman complains of menopausal symptoms. what treatment would you consider and what must you find out about the patient first?

HRT but need to know whether the patient has a uterus or not. This will indicate whether oestrogen+ progesterone or oestrogen alone is given

37

define dypsareunia

pain with sexual intercourse (superficial or deep)

38

define endometriosis?

presence of endometrial stroma and glands outside the uterus; oestrogen dependent condition

39

what is the gold standard ix for confirming endometriosis?

Gold standard ix= laparoscopy to look and to get histology

40

what are some management options for endometriosis?

• Drugs- analgesics- not narcotics

• Drugs to suppress hormonal activity e.g. continuous OCP, Progestins, GnRH analogues

• Surgery- ablate or excise endometriosis via laparoscopy

• Radical surgery- hysterectomy + oophrectomy= definitive management

• Warn that it may not fix pain esp if central sensitisation is present

• Plan pregnancies sooner rather than later
-Early move to IVF if required

41

what is adenomyosis?

endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrial layer of uterus

42

what is the gold standard ix for adenomyosis?

histology from hysterectomy

(so very hard to diagnose)

sometimes we can use u/s but not very specific or sensitive

43

what is primary dysmenorrhoea and what must we consider?

dysmenorrhoea with unknown cause

but must consider adenomyosis (bc can only be diagnosed with a hysterectomy)

44

what is abnormal uterine bleeding?

overarching term used to describe any bleeding that is abnormal with regard to timing/frequency/volume

45

what is heavy menstrual bleeding?

subjective term reported by women who have periods that are excessively heavy
-impacts on QOL and functioning

46

what is prolonged menstrual bleeding?

bleeding >8 days on a regular basis

47

what are some causes of superficial dyspareunia?

• Thrush
• Dermatitis
• Vestibulodynia
• Atrophic vaginitis
Lichen sclerosis

48

what are some causes of deep dyspareunia?

• Endometriosis
• Adenomyosis
• Adhesions
Ovarian cysts

49

Define metrostaxis

acute heavy volume menstrual bleed

50

what are the two types of dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

ovulatory and anovulatory

51

what is the pathophysiology of anovulatory uterine bleeding?

as there is NO ovulation, CL does NOT produce progesterone.

Endometrium thickens due to unopposed E2 and then outgrows its blood supply, causing necrosis and subsequent shedding.

52

what is the difference between ovulatory and anovulatory histology of the endometrium?

ovulatory= secretory endometrium
anovulatory= proliferative endometrium

53

what are some longterm consequences of dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

Fe deficiency anaemia

Infertility

Endometrial hyperplasia + Ca in DUB anovulatory type

54

on bimanual examination, you notice that the uterus is FIXED and retroverted. what must you consider?

endometriosis or PID

55

what does a positive test for cervical excitation during gynae examination often indicate?

blood or infection in the pelvis

56

what is the gold standard test to diagnose exclude endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma?

hysterotomy, dilation and curettage

however, NOT first line ix. (really should be using pipelle)

57

risks of performing endometrial sampling?

risk of uterine perforation, infection, gas embolism

58

what is your line of action (in terms of ix) with a 58 year old post menopausal woman who presents with vaginal bleeding?

working diagnosis- endometrial cancer

1. transvaginal u/s and endometrial sampling pipelle
2. if both normal, watch and wait
3. if abnormal then proceed to hysterotomy, D and C

59

what is normal endometrial thickness on transvaginal u/s?

less than 4mm

60

what is the commonest cause of menorrhagia amongst teenage girls?

anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding

61

what is the difference between mefanamic acid and tranexamic acid?

mefanamic acid= prostaglandin inhibitor

tranexamic acid= anti-fibronolytic agent (inhibits clot breakdown)

62

what are some treatment/management options for heavy menstrual bleeding?

prostaglandin inhibitor, antifibronolytic agents
OCP
Depot provera
Mirena

surgical- endometrial ablation or hysterectomy

63

what are some causes of intermenstrual bleeding in a young woman?

1. E2 falls during the menstrual cycle causing a mini E2 withdrawal bleed
2. Structural cause: Polyps/endometriosis

64

what might persistent post-coital bleeding indicate?

cervical dysplasia or cervicitis

65

What is the most common cause of post-coital bleeding?

cervical ectropium

66

what causes cervical ectropium?

increase E2 levels during puberty

size of ectropium may be increased by OCP and multiparity

67

what are two things we need to consider before deciding to treat endometriosis?

plans for fertility
patient's symptoms

68

what is the medical management of endometriosis?

NSAIDs, and hormone therapy mainly contraceptives such as Mirena, COCP, implanon etc

69

how is an endometrial biopsy taken?

through a suction pipelle inserted through the cervix to sample fragments of endometrial tissue

70

what are some characteristic u/s results that might indicate ovarian torsion?

U/s doppler- reduction of blood flow to the ovary; ring of oedema around the ovary

71

what is the most common coagulopathy which can cause abnormal uterine bleeding

VWF deficiency

72

what is the mechanism by which hypothyroidism causes abnormal uterine bleeding?

low thyroid levels --> increase CORT levels --> induces E2 --> irregular bleeding/growth of endometrium

73

what do we mean by 'dysfunctional ovarian bleeding'?

Endometrial disorders in the absence of pelvic pathology

74

what medication is transexamic acid?

anti-fibrinolytic agent

75

define primary amenorrhoea?

Primary amenorrhoea is defined as the failure of spontaneous menstruation to commence by 16 years of age, or by 15 years of age if there is an absence of secondary sex characteristics.

76

define secondary amenorrhoea?

Secondary amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation for greater than 6 months' duration in a woman who has previously menstruated.

77

what are some possible causes of intermenstrual bleeding?

Cervical malignancy
• Cervical ectropion
• Endocervical polyp
• Atrophic vaginitis
• Pregnancy
• Irregular bleeding related to the contraceptive pill

78

what does PALM COEIN stand for in terms of heavy menstrual bleeding?

Polyps
Adenomyosis
Leiomyoma
Malignancy

Coagulopathy i.e. ITP, leukaemia
Ovulatory dysfunction
Endometrial dysfunction/endocrine cause
Iatrogenic
Not otherwise classified

79

a lady comes in with a history of heavy menstrual bleeding. what ex do you want to do?

General appearance= pallor, haemodynamically stable?, jaundice, bruising

Abdominal palpation of the uterus, assessing for any masses

Other included BP, Cardiac/Resp

+/- bimanual for uterus size
+/- speculum examination if pap smear not up to date

80

an endometrial thickness of ?__mm is highly suspicious in a premenopausal woman and should be investigated. Fill in the gap.

>16mm

81

what is the risk of endometrial ablation?

adenomyosis i.e. painful periods

82

what is the risk of uterine artery embolisation?

risk of menopause if ovaries are accidentally involved

83

what are the management options for a woman who has heavy menstrual bleeding?

1. Nothing/watch and wait
2. Mefanamic acid (ponstan), tranexamic acid
3. Hormonal- COCP/Depot/implanon
4. IUD- Mirena
5. Treat underying cause e.g. removal of polyps, myomectomy
6. Interventional radiology: uterine artery embolisation, MR guided focused u/s to ablate blood supply to the fibroid.
7. Endometrial ablation
8. Hysterectomy

84

what are the possible mechanisms of infertility in endometriosis?

mechanical-obstruction
functional- dyspareunia
inflammatory- hostile environment

85

define dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Excessive heavy, prolonged or frequent bleeding that is not due to pregnancy or any recognizable pelvic or systemic disease

dx of exclusion

86

what are some focused hx questions for heavy menstrual bleeding?

• Ask about hirsutism, increased BMI, acne
• Ask about irregular cycles or long cycle lengths
• Ask about symptoms of anaemia
• Ask about symptoms of hypothyroidism (low mood, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation)
• Ask about symptoms of coagulopathy- any bruising, gum bleeding, ecchymoses, FMH of coagulopathy
• Ask about cancer- FMH of bowel cancer or tamoxifen use for previous breast cancer
• Ask about parity--> whether nulliparous or multiparous
• Ask about dyspareunia and dysmenorrhoea
• Ask about pap smears and if any were abnormal
Ask about impact on life