General Knowledge (Chpt.8) Flashcards Preview

Cognitive Processes > General Knowledge (Chpt.8) > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Knowledge (Chpt.8) Deck (52):
1

Representation of Knowledge

LTM representation of knowledge one big issue is it always words compare propositions

2

Whorfian Hypothesis

LTM information is words

3

Testing Whorf

The dani tribe of new guinea has only two color words for light and dark but Rosch showed they remember and recognize color equally as well as english speakers Remembered color and words to the color. LTM representation is not always words recognition of central colors.

4

Prototype

(Rosch) central colors so why not central concept members. Typical of concepts in the same way that central colors are typical colors

5

Network models

Collins and Loftus spreading activation model

6

Semantic distance

accounts for typically reaction time accounts for semantic priming

7

Lexical decision task

when you differentiate a real word from non-words is it in your lexicon (meaning mental dictionary)

8

Anderson's Adaptive control of thought-Rational
(ACT-R)

a general cognitive processing model structure and architecture. Explains cognitive models

9

Declarative memory

Declaring semantic and episodic memory

10

Inference

refers to the logical interpretations and conclusions that were never part of the original stimulus material

11

Semantic memory

refers to our organized knowledge about the world

12

Episodic memory

information about events that happen to us

13

Category

is a set of objects that belong together

14

Concept

to refer to your mental representations of a category

15

Situated Cognition Approach

we make use of information in the immediate environment or situation

16

Prototype

Is the item that is the best , most typical example of a category a prototype therefore is the ideal representative of this category

17

Prototype Approach

You decide whether a particular item belongs to a category by comparing this item with a prototype

18

Proto typically

or the degree to which they are representative of their catgory

19

Graded Structure

begins with the most representative or prototypical members and it continues on through the category's non prototypical members

1. Prototypes are supplied as examples of a category
2.Prototypes are judged more quickly than non prototypes, after semantic priming.
3.Prototypes share attributes in a family resemblance category

20

Semantic priming effect

means that people respond faster to an item if it was preceded by an item with similar meaning

21

Family resemblence

means that no single attribute is shared by all examples of a concepts; however each example has at least one attribute in common with some other example of the concept

22

Superordinate level categories

which means that they are higher level or more general categories ex. furniture, animal, and tool

23

Basic level categories

are moderately specific ex. chair, dog, and screwdriver

24

Subordinate level categories

refer to lower level or more specific categories ex. desk chair, collie, and phillips screwdriver

25

Exemplar Approach

argues that we first learn information about some specific examples of a concept then we classify each new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles all of those specific examples each of those examples stored in memory is called an exemplar

26

Network models

semantic memory propose a network style organization of concepts in memory with numerous interconnections

27

Node

node or one unit located within the network when you see or hear the name of a concept the node representing that concept is activated

28

Spreading activation

the activation expands or spreads from that node to other connected nodes a process spreading activation.

29

Adaptive Control of Thought Rational (ACT-R)

this approach attempts to account for human performance on a wide variety of tasks

30

Declarative Knowledge

knowledge about facts and things

31

Propositional network

which is pattern of interconnected propositions

32

Propositions

as the smallest unit of knowledge that people can judge to be either true or false

33

Parallel distributed processing (PDP)

approach proposes that cognitive processes can be represented by a model in which activation flows through networks that link together a large number of simple neuron like units

34

Spontaneous generalization

by using individual cases to draw inferences about general information

35

Default assignment

based on info from other similar people or objects

36

Connection weights

determine how much activation one unit can pass on to another unit

37

Schema

schema often influence the way we understand a situation or an event and we can think of them as the basic building blocks for representing our thoughts about people

38

Hueristic

which is a general rule that is typically accurate predictions that we make from reliance upon schemas are usually correct

39

Schema therapy

the clinician and the client may work together in order to explore the clients core beliefs and create appropriate new more helpful strategies

40

Script

simple well structured sequence of events in a specified order

41

Life script

is a list of events that a person believes would be most important throughout his or her lifetime

42

Boundary extension

refers to our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene that was actually shown

43

Abstraction

is a memory process that stores the meaning of a message rather than the exact words

44

Verbatim memory

research demonstrates that people usually have poor word for word recall or verbatim memory

45

False Alarm

occurs when people remember an item that was not originally presented

46

Constructed model or memory

people integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas

47

Pragmatic view of memory

proposes that people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their current goals

48

Memory Integration

our background knowledge encourages us to take in new information in a schema consistent fashion

49

Explicit memory task

directly instructs participants to remember information

50

Implicit memory task

ask people to perform a cognitive task that does not directly ask for recall or recognititon

51

Event Related Potential (ERP) technique

records tiny fluctuations in the brains electrical activity in response to a stimulus

52

Implicit Association Test (IAT)

Is based on the principle that people can mentally pair two related words together much more easily than they can pair two unrelated words.

ex. more association of men and math and women and art