Long-Term Memory (Chpt.5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Long-Term Memory (Chpt.5) Deck (47):
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Working Memory

the brief, immediate memory for material we are currently processing and long term memory. Working memory is fragile the information that you want to retain can disappear from memory after less than a minute and the capacity of working memory is limited you can only simultaneously process and store so much information at one point in time.

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Long-Term Memory

refers to the high-capacity storage system that contains your memories for experiences and information that you have accumulated throughout your lifetime.

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Episodic Memory

focuses on your memories for events that happened to you personally, it allows, you to travel backward in subjective time to reminisce about earlier episodes in your life.

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Semantic Memory

describes your organized knowledge about the world, including your knowledge about words and other factual information

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Phonological Loop

is a processing buffer that allows for the simultaneous processing and storage based or linguistic information

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Visuopatial processing

on the other hand processes both visual and spatial information

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Procedural memory

refers to your knowledge about how to do something

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Encoding

you process information and represent it in your memory

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Retrival

you locate information in storage and you access that information

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Encoding

refers to how you process information and represent it in your memory

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Levels of processing approach

argues that deep, meaningful processing information leads to more accurate recall than shallow, sensory kinds processing this theory is also referred to as the depth of processing approach

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Distinctiveness

means that a stimulus is different from other memory traces

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Elaboration

which requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts

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Self -reference effect

according to the self-reference effect you will remember more information if your try to relate that information to yourself

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Meta analysis

which is statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on single topic.

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Encoding specificity principle

which states that recall is better if he context during retrieval is similar to the context during encoding

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On a recall task

the participants must reproduce the items they learned earlier

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Recognition task

the participants must judge whether they saw a particular item at an earlier time

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Retrival

refers to the process that allow yo locate information that is stored in long term memory and to have access to that information

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Explicit Memory Task

a researcher directly asks you to remember some information; you realize that your memory is being tested and the tested requires you to intentionally retrieve some information that you previously learned

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Implicit Memory Task

you see the material usually a series of words or picture later during the test phase, you are insructed to complete a cognition task that does not directly ask you for either recall or recognition

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Repetition priming task

recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word when you are subsequently presented with a cue that could evoke many different words

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Dissociation

occurs when a variable has large effect on Test A, but little or no effects on Test B, a dissociation also occurs when a variable has one kind effect if measured by Test A,and the opposite effect if measured by test B

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Amnesia

stems from the brain damage trauma to the head, stroke, neurological disease

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Retrograde Amnesia

or loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain damage

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Anterograde Amnesia

or loss of the ability to form memories for events that occurred after brain damage

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Expertise

demonstrate impressive memory abilities, as well as consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area

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Autobiographical memory

is your memory for events and issues related to yourself

misleading post even information peoples memories can be influenced by subtle misinformation. Some constructivist theories hold that many ....

The recovered memory/false memory debate some supposedly recovered memories have been shown to be false

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Ecological Validity

research is conducted are similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied

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Schema

consists of your general knowledge or expectation, which is distilled from your pst experiences with someone or somethihg

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Consistency Bias

that is we tend to exaggerate the consistency between our past feelings and beliefs and our current viewpoint

False memories can be produced in lab research by using something like consistency bias.

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Source Monitoring

background information

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Reality Monitoring

you try to identify whether an event really occurred or whether you actully imagined this event

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Flashbulb Memory

refers to your memory for the circumstances in which you first learned about a very surprising and emotionally arousing event. Many people believe that they can accurately recall all the minor details about what they were doing at the time of this

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Post Event Misinformation Effect

people first view an event they are given misleading information about the event. later on, they mistakenly recall the misleading information rather than the event they actually saw

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Proactive Interference

which means that people have trouble recalling new material because previously learned, old material keeps interfering with new memories

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Retroactive interference

people have trouble recalling new material because some recently learned, new material keeps interfering with old memories.

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Constructivist Apprioach

to memory emphasizes that we construct knowledge by integrating new information with what we know. Our understanding of an event or a topic is coherent

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Emotion

as a reaction to a specific stimulus

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Mood

refers to a more general long lasting experience

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Pollyanna Principle

states that pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and more accurately than less pleasant items

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Positivity Effect

People tend to rate unpleasant past events more positively with the passage of time

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

in which a person experiences at least 6 months of intense long lasting anxiety and worry

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Posttramatic stress disorder

in which a person keeps re experiencing an extremely traumatic event

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Social Phobia

a person become extremely anxious in social situations

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Coding in Short term memory is not necessarily phenomic

visual codes, semantic codes,

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Types of LTM

Episodic memory, Semantic memory, Procedural Memorry