An Intro to Cognitive Psychology (Chpt.1) Flashcards Preview

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Mental activity-the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of knowledge

Cognitive approach- is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes people's thought processes and knowledge


Cognitive psychology

Theories about cognitive structures and processes. Experiments testing these theories


History of cognitive psychology

Descartes (1596-1650) "I think before I am" rationalism:all experience derive from thought

Locke (1632-1704) Empiricism: All thoughts derive from sensory experiences and associations btwn sensory experiences.

Wundt (1832-1920) first psychological research lab founder of introspectionism


Influences of philosophy on psychology




tried to discover the basic building blocks of thought the smallest pieces of perceptual experience also called structuralism the structures were building blocks

introspection meant that carefully trained observers would systematically analyze their own sensations and report them as objectively as possible, under standardized conditions

problem for introspectionism: The mind locked different to different observers

reaction: test only what everybody can observe the environment and behavior



no thoughts, just associations between sensory experiences (stimuli) and responses thoughts are only

problems in behaviorism solution:theorize about the mind, but test the theories with experiments that can be directly odserved


Gestalt Psychology 1910-1945

Gestalt Psychology emphasizes that we humans have basic tendencies to actively organize what we see, and furthermore, that the whole is greater than the sum of its part

- melody in music

work on problem solving influenced by cognitive pscyhology

Transition point from behaviorism to cognitive psychology: The 1956 Symposium on information theory at MIT Noam

1)Chomsky paper on language
2)George Miller: The magical number seven, plus or minus two cognitive complicated processes


Laboratory cognitive research

a more complete understanding of human

Example:Atkinson and Shiffrin's Modal Model of memory

Sensory Store(SS) 1SEC->Short Term-Memory (STM) 45SEC->



Sensory StoreSS sensory
Short term memory STM phonemic
Long term memory LTM semantic


Support for the model

Phonemic vs. semantic errors
tax/tacks vs. happy pleased

H.M STM but no LTM



studying cognition by studying brain process in lesion studies
(PET) Positron emission tomography (PET) scans
(fMRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging
(ERP) Event related potential technique


Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science. It seeks to explore human cognitive processes by creating computer models that show "intelligent behavior" and also accomplish the same tasks that humans do

Representation of how humans act like a simulation designed to do what humans do.


Pure Artificial Intelligence (Pure AI)

Pure Artificial Intelligence is an approach that designs a program to accomplish a cognitive task efficiently as possible, even if the computer's processes are completely different from the processes used by humans.

Designed not to do what humans do


Information Processing Approach

A. Our mental processes are similar to the operations of a computer

B. Information progresses through our cognitive system in a series of stages one step at a time.


(PET) Positron emission tomography

researchers measures blood flow in the brain by injecting the participant with a low dose of a radioactive chemical just before this person works a cognitive task. Travels in blood stream and used to study attention, memory, and language.


(fMRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging

is based on the principle that oxygen-rich blood is an index of brain activity his or her is surrounded by a large, doughnut-shaped magnet. The magnetic field produces changes in the oxygen atoms a scanning device measures brain activity.


Parallel distributed processing (PDP)

Applying neuroscience as an information processing theory. information is stored as connections between neuron like nodes stored in distributed locations like info is stored in the brain. Processed in parallel


Perception (chpt.2)

is using previous knowledge to gather and interpret information from the senses patterns and objects environmental objects cause sensory patterns. An object is the distal stimulus the sensory pattern is the proximal stimulus


*Pattern recognition (chpt.2)



Template theory (chpt.2)

exact match of sensory pattern a new template is needed for each new pattern


Feature analysis (chpt.2)

match distinctive features something that is distinct of a new object different from an old object makes R distinct from P supported related to feture analysis theory Hubel and Weisel feature detectors


Biederman's recognition by components Geon's (chpt.2)

shapes that are similar does not apply to all areas of perception


Bottom up and top down perception (chpt.2)

Top down (global info) conceptually driven in long term memory and bottom up sensor data top knowledge evidence that both bottom up (local info)and top down processing occur simultaneously.

I both the large and small letters match people respond faster than they respond if only large letters or only the small letters match

Word superiority effect - w o r k o r w k


*Serial processing (chpt,2)

only one process occurs at a time ex. seeing


Inattentional blindness (chpt.2)

test variable a person in a gorilla suit walks through the game 46% of test participant had inattentional blindness


Faces are special (chpt.2)

most everyday objects maybe recognized bottom up/ part to whole example see a house later task is to recognize a window of the house there is equal recognition if the window is see with or without the house.


Phonemes (chpt.2)

the smallest units of speech sound, sometimes mispronounced, "would have is correct not would of"