Language Comprehension (chpt. 9) Flashcards Preview

Cognitive Processes > Language Comprehension (chpt. 9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Comprehension (chpt. 9) Deck (36):
1

Language

words stand for something
1.phonetics/phonology the relation of sounds to the auditory perception of signs
2.semantics the relation of signs to meanings
3.syntax relations between signs
4.progmatics relations of signs to people who use them

2

Syntax (encoding and decoding)

refers to the grammatical rules that govern how we organize words into sentences

how to break a sentence into two parts

3

Constituents

speech units replaceable by a single word rewrite rules used to analyze constituents. Evidence for the psychological reality of constituents people parse sentences at the same place. People hear a click as falling between constituents

4

Function vs. Content words

content =nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
function=articles, propositions, conjunctions,

5

Chomsky

transformational grammar developed by chomsky similar to rewrite rules syntactic rule to transform surface structure to deep structure surface structure sentences as spoken or seen deep structure is the basic intent of a sentence

surface and deep structure can be different and similar
transformational example neg. to pos.Deep structure needs to be different to surface structure to the whoe content. Deep structure is the meaning

6

Factor affecting comprhension

negatives, passive vs. active voice, nested structures the man the horse but was not hurt, ambiguity, surface structure ambiguity and deep structure

7

Aphasia

Neurolinguistics aphasia a problem in communicating caused by brain damage

Has difficulty communicating typically as a result of damage to the brain caused by a stroke or a tumor

8

Broca's aphasia

site of damage: frontal lobe, back portion, symptoms difficulty expressing whole thought less of function words
characterized by an expressive language deficit or trouble producing language

Broca's area typically leads to hesitant speech that primarily uses isolated words and short phrases

9

Wernicke's aphasia

site of damage: temporal lobe, back portion, symptoms problems in speech comprehension, fluent but nonsensical speech production problems connecting word sounds with meaning impaired processing of some types of semantics

produces serious difficulties understanding language and instruction

10

Psycholinguistics

is an interdisciplinary field that examines how people use language to communicate ideas

11

Phoneme

is the basic unit spoken language, sounds a, k and th

12

Morpheme

is the basic unit meaning

13

Morphology

refers to the study of morpheme

14

Grammar

encompasses both morphology and syntax it therefore examines both word structure and sentence structure

15

Semantic memory

refers to our organized knowledge about the world

16

Pragmatic

refers to our knowledge of the social rules that underline language use pragmatics take into account the listener's perspective

17

Surface structure

is represented by the words that actually spoken or written

18

Deep structure

underlying more abstract meaning of a senstence

19

transformational rules

to convert deep structure into a surface structure that they can speak or write

20

Cognitive functional approach

that the function of human language in everyday life is to communicate meaning to other individuals

21

Incremental interpretation

refers to the observation that when processing language we do not wait an entire sentence is spoken or read before making judgements about what it means

22

On line language processing measures

On line measures of sentence processing are designed to gauge the amount of difficulty one experiences as the linguistic signal unfolds unit by unit over time

23

Lexical ambiguity

refers to the fact that a single word can have mutiple meaning

24

Eye tracker

is a special camera that allows one to determine precisely where in a visual display someone is looking

25

Neurolinguistics

is the discipline that examines how the brain process language

26

Event Related Potential Technique

records brief fluctuations in the brains electrical activity elicited by the presentation on a linguistic stimulus precise information about the time course of linguistic processing events

27

Lateralization

means that each hemisphere of the brain has somewhat different functions

28

Mirror system

is a network involving the brains motor cortex are activated both when you watch someone perform in action and when you perform the action yourself

29

Dual route approach to reading

specifies that skilled readers employ both 1. direct access route and 2. an indirect access route

30

Direct access route

you recognize this word directly through vision without sounding out the words

31

Indirect access route

as soon as you see a word you translate the ink marks on the page into some form of sound before you can access a word and its meaning

32

Whole word approach

argues that readers can directly connect the written word as an entire unit with the meaning that this word represents

33

Phonics approach

states that readers recognize words by trying to pronounce the individual letters in the word

34

Whole language approach

reading instruction should emphasize meaning, and it should be enjoyable to increase children's enthusiasm about learning to read

35

Discourse

inter related units of language that are larger than a sentence

36

Constructionist view of inferences

readers usually draw inferences about the causes of events and the relationships between events