Problem Solving (chpt. 11) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Problem Solving (chpt. 11) Deck (44):
1

Problem

A difference between an original state and a desired state that is not steadily changed

2

Problem Finding

Even important problems may not be obvious children see problems more easily

3

Problem Representation

Requirements, correspondence, internal to external consistency, blanket in yogurt in a blanket does not mean a bed cover

4

Experiment: The five handed monster problem

Participants had to read the problem monster problem 3 monsters held 3 different size globe s, m ,l. Sentences with important parts are re-read more often

5

Ways of representing problems

symbols, math word problems, symbols make manipulations possible

6

WORP: Matrix

best for properties and positions

7

WORP:Diagrams

good for assembly problem

8

WORP:Hierarchical tree diagrams

probability problems

is a figure that uses a tree like structure t show various possible options in a problem. The kind of diagram is especially helpful in showing the relationship between categorized items

9

WORP: Visual Images

Good for comparison problems

10

Situated cognition

real world context are information rich

we often use helpful information in our immediate environment to create spatial representations we make decisions about the up-down dimension more quickly than decisions about the left-right dimension

11

Algorithm

Guaranteed success, but may take a very long time example systematic random search

is a method that will always produce a solution to the problem although the process can sometimes be inefficient

12

Hueristics

rule of thumb methods usually successful and comparatively quick example generating common names to help remember a person's name

13

Thinking

requires you to go beyond the information you were given so that you can reach a goal. The goal may be a solution, a belief, or a decision,

14

Problem Solving

refers to the processes necessary to reach a goal, typically in situations where the solution is not immediately obvious
1. The initial State
2. The goal state and
3. The obstacles

15

Initial state

describes the situation at the beginning of the problem

16

Goal State

when you solve the problem

17

Obstacles

describe the restrictions that make it difficult to proceed from the initial state to the goal state

18

Understanding

means that you have constructed a well organized mental representation of the problem based on both the information provided in the problem and your own previous experience

19

Problem representation

refers to the way you translate the elements of the problem into a different format.

20

Ecological Validity

if the conditions in which the research is conducted are similar to the natural setting in which the results will be applied

21

Exhaustive search

in which you try out all possible answers using a specified system.

22

Analogy Approach

in problem solving you employ a solution to a similar earlier problem to help you solve a new problem

23

Problem Isomorphs

to refer to a set of problems that have the same underlying structures and solution but different specific details

24

Surface Features

such as the specific objects and terms used in the question

25

Structural Features

the underlying core that they must understand in order to solve the problem correctly.

26

Subproblems

first you divide the problem into a number of subproblems or smaller problems and then you try to reduce the difference between the initial state and the goal state for each of the subproblems

27

Meansends hueristic

is appropriate because it requires you to identify the ends or final result that you want and then figure out the means or methods that will use to reach those ends

28

Computer Simulation

they write a computer program that will perform a task in the same way that a human world

29

General Problem Solver(GPS)

is a program where basic strategy is means ends analysis

30

Hill climbing heuristic

and you reach a choice point you consistently choose the alternative that seems to lead most directly toward your goal

31

Expertise

demonstrates consistently exceptional skill and performance on representative tasks for a particular area

32

Parallel processing

handles two or more items at the same time

33

Serial Processing

handles only one item at a time

34

Mental set

you keep trying the same solution you used in previous problems

35

Fixed mindset

you believe that you possess a certain amount of intelligence and other skills and no amount of effort can help you perform better

36

Growth mindset

you believe that you can cultivate your intelligence and other skills you challenge yourself to perform better

37

Functional Fixedness

mean that we tend to assign stable or fixed functions to an object

38

Insight Problem

the problem initially seems impossible to solve but then an alternative approach suddenly burst into your consciousness

39

Noninsight problem

you solve the problem gradually by using your memory reasoning skills, and a routine set of strategies

40

Creativity

requires solutions that are both novel and useful

41

Divergent production

or the number of different responses made to a test item

42

Convergent production

asks the test taker to supply a single best response and the researchers measure the quality of that response

43

Extrinsic Motivation

or the motivation to work on a task not because you find it enjoyable but i order to earn a promised reward or to win a competition

44

Intrinsic Motivation

the motivation to work on tasks for their own sake because you find them interesting, exciting, or personally challenging