Visual and Auditory Recognition (Chpt.2) Flashcards Preview

Cognitive Processes > Visual and Auditory Recognition (Chpt.2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Visual and Auditory Recognition (Chpt.2) Deck (22):
1

Motor Theory (MT)vs. General Mechanism (GM)

MT: A phonetic module connects hearing to the language motor system. GM is know the most accepted theory

GM: Speech sounds are heard the same way as other sounds

2

Categorial perception

each phoneme category is signaled by many features phoneme categories (PC) are perceived extremely efficiently. MT support PC originally found only in humans and only with speech sounds. GM support PC later found in animals and non-speech sounds

3

Perception

Vision and hearing knowledge in a variety of ways to perceive the world.

uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered.

4

Object Recognition or Pattern Recognition

you identify a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli, and you perceive that this pattern is separate from its background.

5

Distal stimulus

is the actual object that is out there in the environment

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Proximal stimulus

is the information registered on your sensory receptors for example the image that your pen creates on your retina

7

Retina

covers the inside back portion of your eye it contains millions of neurons that register and transmit visual information from the outside world

8

Sensory memory

is a large capacity storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy

9

Iconic memory or visual memory

preserves an image of a visual stimulus for a brief period after the stimulus has disappeared

10

Primary visual cortex

is located in the occipital lobe of the brain it is the portion of your cerebral cortex that is concerned with basic processing of visual stimuli. It is also the first place where information from your two eyes is combined

11

Gestalt Psychology

is that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see without any effort we see patterns rather than random arrangements

12

Figure

has a distant shape with clearly defined edges

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Ground

is the region that is left over forming the background

14

Ambiguous figure-ground relationship

the figure and the ground reverse from time to tie so that the figure becomes the ground and then becomes the figure again

15

Illusory Contours

we see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus

16

Feature Analysis Theories

propose a relatively flexible approach, in which a visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristic is called a distinctive feature

17

Recognition by components theory

is that a specific view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-d shapes called geons.

18

Viewer centered approach

this approach proposes that we store a small number of views of three dimensional objects, rather than just one view

19

Bottom-up processing

emphasizes that the stimulus characteristics are important when you recognize an object notice its shape, size, color, and other physical characteristic

20

Top down processing

emphasizes how a person's concepts, expectations, and memory can influence object recognition

21

Change Blindness

Because we overuse top down processing we sometimes demonstrate change blindness we fail to detect a change in an object or a scene

22

In attentional blindness

when we are paying attention to some events in a scene we may fail to notice when an unexpected but completely visible object suddenly appears.