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Flashcards in Working Memory (Chpt.4) Deck (26):
1

Working memory

the ability to simultaneously store and process information is called working memory working memory plays a central role not just in language understanding, but also in most types of cognitive processing that you perform on a daily basis

2

Short-term memory

memory refers to the memory system that is responsible for holding onto a small amount of information that has been recently taken in from the environment

3

Long term memory

has a large capacity and contains your memory for experiences and information that have accumulated throughout your lifetime

4

Chunk

A chunk is a memory unit that consists of several components that are strongly associated with one another seven chunks

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Brown/Peterson and Peterson technique

Involves presenting participants with some items that they are instructed to remember. Participants then perform a distracting task. After spending some time on the distracting task, participants are then asked to recall the original items

Numbers are not similar to letters

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Rehearsal

repeating the items silently

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Recency effect

recall for items at the end of the list

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Primacy effect

with enhanced recall for items at the beginning of the list

9

Proactive Interference (PI)

means that people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with their new learning.

10

Atkinson and Shiffrin information processing approach

one approach to cognition, arguing that our mental processes are similar to the operations of a computer and information progresses through our cognitive system in a series of stages one step at a time.

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Atkinson and Shiffrin Model

proposed that memory involves a sequence of seperate steps. In each step, information is transferred from one storage area to another

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Sensory memory

is a storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy

13

Control processes

which are intentional strategies such as rehearsal that people may use to improve their memory

14

Working memory

is the brief, immediate memory for the limited amount of material that you are currently processing part of working memory also actively coordinates your ongoing mental activities

15

Working memory approach by Baddley

Model:
central executive, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, phonological loop, long term memory

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Phonological loop

can process a limited number of sounds for a short period of time.The phenological loop processes language and other sounds that you hear, as well as the sounds that you make

17

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

is neuroscience technique that uses a magnetic field to briefly stimulate a specific location on the cortex no surgery or other invasive procedures are involved

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Visuospatial sketchpad

process both visual and spatial information

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Central Executive

integrates information form the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodie buffer, and long term memory. The central executive also plays a major role in focusing attention, selecting strategies, transforming information, and coordinating behavior. Responsible for suppressing irrelevant information

20

Episodic Buffer

serves a temporary storehouse that can hold and combine information from phonological loop, your visuopath sketchpad, and long term memory

intergrating phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad and long term

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Evidence against earlier models of STM

Phonemic repetitions do not guarantee LTM encoding

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Phonological loop and LTM recall

digitali span 7 numbers memory, recall of recently presented xxxxxx

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Visuospatial sketchpad

2 visuospatial sketch pad tasks, Brooks imagery task and

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Central Executive

active in coordinating phonological loop and visuo spatial sketch pad. attention processes ad planning, coordinating behavior suppressing irrelevant information
two central executive tasks-thinking about irrelevant info and writing random number

25

Individual differences in WM capacity

Processing (5words) and storage (numbers) while he tested us

26

Higher Working Memory predicts

success in guessing the meaning of the new words while reading a passage