Flashcards in GI Deck (160)
Most common location of salivary gland tumors:
Most common salivary gland tumor:
Second most common:
Most common malignant salivary gland tumor:
This very common genetic defect is a risk for duodenal atresia:
Jejunal, ileal, and colonic atresia are due to this event during fetal development. What about duodenal atresia?
Duodenal = failure to recanalize
Jejunal et c = vascular accident
This anterior abdominal wall defect can contain a herniated liver, whereas this does not.
Omphalocele can have the liver protruding
Gastroschisis does not
These structures are retroperitoneal (9):
A DUCK PEAR:
Colon (descending and ascending)
Pancreas (except tail)
Aorta / IVC
Three metabolic abnormalities that may be seen in an infant with pyloric stenosis:
Hypokalemia (K+ shift into cells to allow H+ out into blood)
Pale clay colored stool, tea urine, jaundice in the first weeks of life:
Extrahepatic biliary stenosis, failure of the bile ducts to completely re-canalize.
The pancreas is derived from this embryonic structure:
Which pancreatic bud contributes to the head and main pancreatic duct?
How does an annular pancreas happen?
Ventral bud is in two pieces
Dorsal / ventral fuse abnormally and encircle the duodenum.
Where does the spleen come from? From what tissue layer is it derived?
The stomach mesentary, it's mesodermal.
What structures come from the hepatic diverticulum off the ventral foregut?
Gall bladder / biliary tree
Ventral pancreatic bud
Which pancreatic bud travels to meet the other bud?
Ventral swings around dorsally to join the dorsal pancreatic bud.
This embryonic structure gives rise to the body, tail, and isthmus of the pancreas:
Dorsal pancreatic bud
This ligament contains the portal triad:
Access to the lesser sac through this ligament:
The tail of the pancreas is embedded in this ligament:
The gastric arteries are in this ligament:
This ligament is the remnant of the fetal umbilical vein:
Ligamentum teres hepatis
What are the layers of the gut wall (inside out) (4)?
Serosa / adventitia
This type of injury extends into the submucosa:
Where is the myenteric nerve plexus? What is its other name?
Myenteric = Auerbach's
It is the OUTERbach's plexus
This nerve plexus is the inner nerve plexus and is located in the _________.
Submucosal nerve plexus is the inner one, aka Meissner's, it's in the submucosa, of course.
Three arteries to the GI structures come off the aorta anteriorly:
What is SMA syndrome?
The duodenum gets caught between the SMA and the aorta and is obstructed.
Parasympathetic innervation for the:
Foregut and midgut = vagus
Hindgut = pelvic
The artery that supplies the foregut:
The three main branches off the celiac trunk:
The common hepatic artery gives rise to three arteries, what are they?
Hepatic artery proper
This artery gives rise to the main arteries to the pancreas:
Gastroduodenal via the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
The R gastroepiploic artery comes from this origin, and the left comes from a separate vessel:
R from the gastroduodenal (off common hepatic)
L from the splenic (off celiac trunk)
Which zone in the liver is affected first by viral hepatitis?
Zone 1 = zone closest to the portal triad
Zone III is located near what structure in the liver?
Pericentral / centrilobular veins
What direction does bile flow relative to the central hepatic vein?
Away from it, toward the triad.
This hormone causes gall-bladder contraction:
What is the most common kind of stomach hernia? The most dangerous?
Sliding hiatal = most common
Paraesophageal = most dangerous, fundus can get trapped in this one.
Where do an indirect and a direct inguinal hernia lie relative to the inferior epigastric artery?
Indirect = lateral
Direct = medial
Gastrin comes from these cells:
This hormone is anti-gastrin
These two hormones are the main off-switch for gastric acid secretion:
Where is secretin made?
S cells in the duodenum
This hormone is the anti-hormone-hormone:
This hormone hits parasympathetic ganglia in the gut:
VIP = vasoactive intestinal peptide
This substance helps relax the LES:
This hormone is seriously elevated in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome:
Three common substances that are potent stimulators of gastrin:
Three histologic / gross / lab findings in a stomach of someone with ZE syndrome:
Cells that make IF:
These glands in the duodenal submucosa secrete alkaline mucus:
When might they be hypertrophied?
Peptic ulcer disease
Gastrin increases acid secretion indirectly. Briefly explain how this happens:
Gastrin hits ECL cells in the gut, which release histamine; it is histamine that hits parietal cells and tells them to secrete acid.
Type of receptor on parietal cells most important for stimulating acid secretion:
Two Gi coupled receptors on a parietal cell:
Both inhibit acid secretion
The H2 receptor on a parietal cell works through what second messenger?
Two hormones stimulate pancreatic secretions:
Where are oligosaccharide hydrolases located?
At the brush border of the intestines.
What is the rate-limiting step in carbohydrate digestion?
Monosaccharide production by oligosaccharide hydrolases
This sugar transporter sends both glucose and fructose from an enterocyte into the blood:
Glucose and galactose enter an enterocyte on this transporter:
What kind of carrier is it?
How is fructose taken into an enterocyte?
Facilitated diffusion through GLUT-5
What is the plasma carrier protein for vitamin B12?
Where are each of the following vitamins absorbed? Iron, Folate, B12:
B12: Terminal ileum, needs IF
The cells in Peyer's patches that take up antigen:
Where do B cells in the gut live?
In Peyer's patches, inside the lamina propria
What enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step for bile salt formation?
Which form of bilirubin is water-soluble -- direct or indirect?
Direct = conjugated = water soluble.
Gut bacteria convert conjugated bilirubin into this molecule, which either goes out into the feces as stercobilin or gets resorbed via the mesenteric veins and sent to the kidney / liver:
This salivary gland tumor has germinal centers:
Warthin's tumor = papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum
This salivary tumor has mucinous and squamous parts. It is the second most common tumor overall:
Most tumors in this gland are malignant:
What does a Warthin's tumor look like?
A lymph node: Columnar epithelium on a wad of lymph cells with a little stroma
Loss of innervation to this plexus leads to achalasia:
T/F: Achalasia increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma:
Primary achalasia has a high LES opening pressure. This disorder involves a low pressure proximal to the LES:
CREST / Scleroderma
This infection can give rise to secondary achalasia:
Chagas (=Trypanosoma cruzii)
CMV esophagitis looks like:
CMV: Linear ulcers, large cells with clear perinuclear halo.
HSV esophagitis looks like:
Punched-out ulcers, large pink nuclear inclusions.
What is Whipple's disease?
Infection with Tropheryma whipplei (gram + organism). Leads to malabsorption.
Features of Whipple's disease (5):
WHIPped cream in a CAN:
FOAMY macrophages in intestinal mucosa
Malabsorption, neurologic manifestations, autosomal recessive, acanthocytes:
HLA associated with Celiac:
Three Ab you can find in Celiac disease:
Acute erosive gastritis, 3 features:
Loss of surface epithelium
Purulent exudate with fibrin
Chronic gastritis, 2 features:
Two injuries that can cause acute erosive gastritis:
Burns (Curling ulcer)
TBI (Cushing ulcer)
Type A gastritis: autoimmune or caused by H. pylori? Location in the stomach?
AutoAb, Anemia (pernicious), Achlorhydria
In the body of the stomach
H. pylori infection causes this type of gastritis:
Chronic, non-erosive, type B (in the antrum)
What is Menetrier's disease?
Gastric hypertrophy with huge increase in mucous cells. Patients have protein loss sufficeint to cause hypoalbuminemia.
Super hypertrophied rugae:
Krukenberg's tumor, what is it?
Bilateral metastasis of stomach cancer to ovaries. See mucus, signet ring cells.
Three places you might see signet ring cells:
Lobular adenocarcinoma in situ (breast)
Kruckeberg's tumor of the ovary
This kind of ulcer will be accompanied by hypertrophy of Brunner's glands:
What is involved in triple therapy for H. pylori?
PPI + clarithromycin + amox or metronidazole
PPI + bismuth + metro + tetracycline
Tx for irritable bowel syndrome (5):
Where do false diverticula commonly occur?
Most common in the sigmoid colon, where the vasa recta perforate the muscularis externa.
Three diverticula above the lower esophageal sphincter:
Zencker = above the UES
Traction = mid-esophageal
Epiphrenic = above the LES
Persistence of the vitelline duct, melena.
Intussusception is most common at this location:
"Double bubble" on X-ray:
Pneumatosis intestinalis in a premie:
Abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings in an elderly person:
Most common sites for angiodysplasia (3):
Cecum, terminal ileum, ascending colon
Carcinoid syndrome, 3 associated findings:
Right sided heart disease / murmur
Most common sites for carcinoid tumors (3):
Appendix, ileum, rectum
Neurotransmitter leading to carcinoid syndrome:
T/F: If a carcinoid tumor is confined to the GI tract, you will not see carcinoid syndrome.
T. Liver metabolizes 5-HT. Only mets outside the GI system will cause carcinoid syndrome.
Treatment for carcinoid syndrome:
Octreotide, somatostatin, find it and cut it out
This enzyme is elevated in the serum in mumps infection:
Cause of Reye's syndrome:
Hepatoencephalopathy 2/2 mitochondrial damage in the liver caused by aspirin + viral infection in children
Two viruses especially linked to Reye's syndrome:
VZV, influenza B
Does ethanol deplete ALT or AST?
ALT. This is the reason why AST > ALT in chronic alcoholic hepatitis.
What is the serum albumin ascites gradient? What does it mean to have a value >1.1?
SAAG = albumin in serum - albumin in ascites fluid. >1.1 cause is portal HTN, heart failure, Budd-Chiari.
A very common cause of GI bleeding among the elderly (excluding colon CA and diverticuar bleeds...):
Most common cause of appendicitis in children:
Children = lymphoid hyperplasia
Adults = fecalith
Hirschprung's disease always involves this segment of the GI tract:
Down syndrome patients are at risk for these GI problems (4):
Angiodysplasia is most common in the :
Cecum, terminal ileum, ascending colon
Type of colon polyp with greatest malignant potential:
This type of polyp is not a risk for CRC:
Non-malignant hamartomas, hyperpigmented lips, mouth, genitalia:
Peutz-Jeghers is associated with cancer, can you name six?
Three big-name genes in CRC:
FAP with osseous and soft tissue tumors:
FAP with a CNS tumor:
Usually a medulloblastoma
Lynch syndrome is caused by this defect:
DNA mis-match repair
Cancer in the most proximal colon is most commonly caused by:
HNPCC = Lynch syndrome
Good marker for colon CA recurrence:
Order of gene events for CRC genesis:
Carcinoid syndrome is caused by excess of this neurotransmitter:
Medical treatment for carcinoid syndrome:
Octreotide / somatostatin
Tumor of neuroendocrine cells in the appendix might be likely to cause these symptoms:
Carcinoid syndrome, B-FDR:
R sided heart murmur
Carcinoid syndrome can be observed with a tumor in the GI tract. Explain how this happens:
Tumor must have mets to the liver. Liver otherwise metabolizes 5-HT and you do not see carcinoid syndrome from GI-confined cancers.
Inflammatory bowel disease with skip lesions and rectal sparing:
Inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis:
Inflammatory bowel disease with rectal involvement:
Microscopic morphology of Chron's colon:
Chrons = noncaseating gramulomas, lymphoid aggregates
UC = Crypt abscesses and ulcers, bleeding
Cell response mediating disease process in:
Chron's = Th1
UC = Th2
Gross morphology of Chron's colon (2 core features):
Cobblestoned, transmural thickening
Gross morphology of a colon in UC (3 features):
Inflammation is mucosal and sub-mucosal
Loss of haustra (lead pipe appearance)
Embryonic source of tissue above the pectinate line:
Below the pectinate line:
Represents greatest risk for developing squamous cell CA in the anal region:
HPV 16, 18, 31
The inferior rectal artery is a branch of:
The internal pudendal
LLQ pain and bleeding:
Treatment for diverticulitis:
Metronidazole (covers anaerobes) +
TMP-SMX or Levo or Cipro
This virus is associated with intussusception:
5-ASA agents (2):
These are used in treatment of?
Chron's and UC
Most likely underlying cause of gallstones in a patient with Chron's:
Bile acid wasting
Terminal ileum usually resorbs, damage to mucosa = less bile acid with more cholesterol = stones
Abdominal discomfort, joint pain, greasy stool, weight loss, macrophages with PAS+ granules in the lamina propria:
Whipple disease = Tropheryma whippelii
Small intestine mucosa contains PAS+ diestase-resistant granules, macrophages with rod-shaped bacilli:
Red-violet, flat, macopapular lesions with hemorrhagic nodules on colonoscopy:
Basophilic clusters on surface of intestinal mucosal cells:
Trophozoites containing RBCs:
H. pylori most highly colonizes this part of the stomach:
Peri-anal fistula: More characteristic of Chron's or UC?
Location of the following ulcers:
Which are more prone to rupture?
Cushing = esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
Curling = proximal duodenum
Cushing are more prone to rupture (think increased ICP, more likely to pop)
What is the definition of an erosion?
Erosion = loss of tissue that does not fully extend through the muscularis mucosa
Ulcer = damage extending into the submucosa and beyond.