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Flashcards in GI Deck (160)
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1

Most common location of salivary gland tumors:

Parotid gland

2

Most common salivary gland tumor:
Second most common:

Pleomorphic adenoma
Warthin's tumor

3

Most common malignant salivary gland tumor:

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

4

This very common genetic defect is a risk for duodenal atresia:

Trisomy 21

5

Jejunal, ileal, and colonic atresia are due to this event during fetal development. What about duodenal atresia?

Duodenal = failure to recanalize
Jejunal et c = vascular accident

6

This anterior abdominal wall defect can contain a herniated liver, whereas this does not.

Omphalocele can have the liver protruding
Gastroschisis does not

7

These structures are retroperitoneal (9):

A DUCK PEAR:
Adrenals
Duodenoum
Ureters
Colon (descending and ascending)
Kidneys
Pancreas (except tail)
Esophagus
Aorta / IVC
Rectum

8

Three metabolic abnormalities that may be seen in an infant with pyloric stenosis:

Hypochloremia
Metabolic alkalosis
Hypokalemia (K+ shift into cells to allow H+ out into blood)

9

Pale clay colored stool, tea urine, jaundice in the first weeks of life:

Extrahepatic biliary stenosis, failure of the bile ducts to completely re-canalize.

10

The pancreas is derived from this embryonic structure:

Foregut

11

Which pancreatic bud contributes to the head and main pancreatic duct?

Ventral bud

12

How does an annular pancreas happen?

Ventral bud is in two pieces
Dorsal / ventral fuse abnormally and encircle the duodenum.

13

Where does the spleen come from? From what tissue layer is it derived?

The stomach mesentary, it's mesodermal.

14

What structures come from the hepatic diverticulum off the ventral foregut?

Liver
Gall bladder / biliary tree
Ventral pancreatic bud

15

Which pancreatic bud travels to meet the other bud?

Ventral swings around dorsally to join the dorsal pancreatic bud.

16

This embryonic structure gives rise to the body, tail, and isthmus of the pancreas:

Dorsal pancreatic bud

17

This ligament contains the portal triad:

Hepatoduodenal

18

Access to the lesser sac through this ligament:

Gastrohepatic

19

The tail of the pancreas is embedded in this ligament:

Splenorenal

20

The gastric arteries are in this ligament:

Gastrohepatic

21

This ligament is the remnant of the fetal umbilical vein:

Ligamentum teres hepatis

22

What are the layers of the gut wall (inside out) (4)?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa
Serosa / adventitia

23

This type of injury extends into the submucosa:

Ulceration

24

Where is the myenteric nerve plexus? What is its other name?

Myenteric = Auerbach's
It is the OUTERbach's plexus

25

This nerve plexus is the inner nerve plexus and is located in the _________.

Submucosal nerve plexus is the inner one, aka Meissner's, it's in the submucosa, of course.

26

Three arteries to the GI structures come off the aorta anteriorly:

Celiac
Superior mesenteric
Inferior mesenteric

27

What is SMA syndrome?

The duodenum gets caught between the SMA and the aorta and is obstructed.

28

Parasympathetic innervation for the:
Foregut
Midgut
Hindgut

Foregut and midgut = vagus
Hindgut = pelvic

29

The artery that supplies the foregut:

Celiac

30

The three main branches off the celiac trunk:

Common hepatic
Splenic
Left gastric