Quick Facts Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Quick Facts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quick Facts Deck (198)
1

Most common cause of neural tube defects?

Folate deficiency.

2

Most common cause of congenital malformations in the US?

EtOH.

3

Most common cause of congenital MR in the US?

Fetal alcohol syndrome.

4

Hyperflexible joints, arachnodactyly, aortic dissection, lens dislocation? The defect is in which protein?

Marfan syndrome.
Defect in fibrillin.

5

Hereditary nephritis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss. Defect is in?

Alport syndrome.
Defect in collagen IV.

6

Unilateral facial drooping involving the forehead. Ddx.

Bell's palsy.
Ddx is stroke, forehead usually spared.

7

Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis.

Horner syndrome.

8

Amyloid deposits in gray matter of the brain:

Alzheimers.

9

Drooling farmer:

Organophosphate poisoning.

10

Inability to breastfeed, amenorrhea, cold intolerance:

Sheehan syndrome.

11

Infertility, galactorrhea, bitemporal hemianopsia:

Prolactinoma.

12

Most common causes of Cushing syndrome (3):

1. Exogenous steroids
2. Ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor
3. ACTH-secreting tumor in pituitary

13

Most common tumor of the adrenal:

Benign non-functional adenoma

14

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults:

Pheochromocytoma

15

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in kids:

Adrenal neuroblastoma

16

Medical treatment for hyperaldosteronism:

Spironolactone / eplerenone

17

Medical treatment for pheochromocytoma:

Phenoxybenzamine / phentolamine

18

Pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid cancer, hyperparathyroidism:

MEN 2A

19

Pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid cancer, mucosal neuromas:

MEN 2B

20

Adrenal disease associated with skin hyperpigmentation:

Addison disease

21

HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis:

Conn syndrome

22

Most common thyroid cancer:

Papillary

23

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroid

24

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei:

Papillary thyroid cancer

25

Standard tx for DKA:

Fluids, insulin (IV), K+

26

Standard treatment for DM 1:
Standard treatment for DM 2:

DM 1: Insulin, low sugar diet
DM 2: Weight loss, exercise, oral agents

27

Dysphagia, glossitis, iron deficiency anemia.

Plummer-Vinson

28

Hematemesis with retching:

Mallory-Weiss tear, or Boerhaev's

29

Mucin-filled cell with a peripheral nucleus:

Signet ring cell

30

Most common type of stomach cancer:

Adenocarcinoma

31

Ovarian metastasis from gastric cancer:

Kruckenberg tumor

32

Gastic ulcerations and high gastrin levels:

Zollinger-Ellison

33

Acute gastric ulcer associated with elevated ICP or head trauma:

Cushing ulcer

34

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns:

Curling ulcer

35

Painless jaundice:

Pancreatic cancer (especially in the head)

36

Most common cause of acute pancreatitis:

Gallstones, followed by EtOH.

37

Most common cause of chronic pancreatitis:

EtOH.

38

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy, and hyperpigmentation:

Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whipplei)

39

Anti-transglutaminase / anti-gliadin / anti-endomysial Ab:

Celiac disease

40

Triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes:

Fatty liver

41

Eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes:

Mallory bodies

42

Cancer closely linked to cirrhosis:

Hepatocellular carcinoma

43

Severe hyperbilirubinemia in a neonate:

Crigler-Najjar type I

44

Mild, benign hyperbilirubinemia, most common cause:

Gilbert syndrome

45

Hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, ascites, no JVD:

Budd-Chiari

46

Green / yellow corneal deposits:

Wilson disease

47

Low serum ceruloplasmin:

Wilson disease

48

Cirrhosis, diabetes, and hypertension:

Hemocrhromatosis

49

Treatment for chronic hepatitis:

IFN-a

50

Most common infections seen in chronic granulomatous disease:

Catalase (+)

51

Eczema, recurrent URI, high serum IgE:

Job's syndrome = Hyper IgE

52

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes:

Chediak-Hegashi

53

Dark purple nodules on the skin of an HIV patient:

Kaposi's sarcoma

54

Large cells with owl's eye inclusions:

CMV

55

Treatment for CMV:

Ganciclovir

56

Most common opportunisitic infection in HIV patients:

PCP

57

Drug used to prevent pneumocystis pneumonia:

TMP-SMX

58

Preferred anticoagulant for immediate anticoagulation:

Heparin

59

Preferred anticoagulant for long-term anticoagulation:

Warfarin

60

Preferred anticoagulant during pregnancy:

Heparin

61

Boy who self-mutilates, mental retardation, gout:

Lesch-Nyhan

62

Elevated uric acid levels (3):

Loop / thiazide diuretics
Gout
Lesch-Nyhan

63

Causes of hypochromic, microcytic anemia:

Can't fill up the cell:
Fe deficiency
Thalassemia
Pb poisoning (interferes with Fe)

64

Hypersegmented neutrophils:

Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
Fe or B12

65

Skull x-ray with a "hair on end" appearance:

Sickle cell
Beta thal. major

66

Basophilic stippling of RBCs:

Pb poisoning

67

Painful cyanosis of fingers and toes, with hemolytic anemia:

Cold agglutinin

68

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs:

PNH

69

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs:

Howell-Jolly bodies

70

Autosplenectomy

SS

71

Drug used to treat sickle cell disease:

Hydroxyurea

72

Antiplatelet antibodies:

ITP

73

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency:

Bernard-Soulier

74

Most common inherited bleeding disorder:

vW disease

75

Cancer most commonly associated with a non-infectious fever:

Hodgkin lymphoma

76

"Smudge" cells:

CLL

77

"Punched out" lytic bone lesions:

Multiple myeloma

78

Sheets of lymphoid cells with a "starry sky" appearance:

Burkitt's lymphoma

79

RBCs clumped together like a stack of coins / poker chips:

Rouleaux formation
Multiple myeloma

80

Monoclonal antibody spike:

Multiple myeloma
(also MGUS, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia)

81

Reddish-pink rods in the cytoplasm of leukemic blasts:

Auer rods
AML

82

Large B cells with bilobed nuclei and prominent "owl's eye inclusions":

Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkin lymphoma

83

Treatment of choice for rickets and osteomalacia:

Vitamin D

84

Swollen gums, poor wound healing, bleeding mucous membranes, and spots on the skin:

Scurvy

85

Most common cancer of the appendix:

Carcinoid

86

GI hamartomas, hyperpigmentation of the mouth and hands:

Peutz-Jehgers syndrome

87

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas, soft tissue tumors:

Gardners syndrome

88

Severe RLQ pain with rebound:

McBurney's sign
Appendicitis

89

"Apple core" lesion on barium enema:

Colon cancer

90

Most common site of colonic diverticula:

Sigmoid

91

"String sign" on contrast X-ray:

Chron's disease

92

"Lead pipe" appearance of colon on contrast X-ray:

Ulcerative colitis

93

Food poisoning due to exotoxin:

Staph aureus
Bacillus cereus

94

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease:

Salmonella

95

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in a patient with HIV:

Toxoplasma gondii

96

Treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis:

Metronidazole
For both partners.

97

Most common protozoal diarrhea:

Giardia lamblia

98

Chronic sinusitis, infertility, and situs inversus:

Kartagener's

99

Elevated d-dimer, setting of lung pathology:

Pulmonary embolism

100

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, stasis of blood:

Virchow's triad

101

Blue bloater

Chronic bronchitis

102

Pink puffer

Emphysema

103

Curschmann's spirals

Asthma

104

Most common cause of pulmonary hypertension:

COPD

105

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis:

Sarcoidosis

106

Vasculitis and glomerulonephritis:

Goodpasture's (Wegener's too)

107

Anti-glomerular basement membrane Ab:

Goodpasture syndrome

108

Honeycomb lung on x-ray:

Interstitial fibrosis

109

"Tennis racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles:

Birbeck granules

110

Psammoma bodies, four pathologic processes:

PSMM:
Papillary thyroid cancer
Serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

111

Most common causes of nosocomial pneumonia:

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas

112

Lung cancer associated with SIADH:

Small / oat cell carcinoma of the lung

113

Iron-containing nodules in the alveolar septum:

Ferruginous bodies
Asbestosis

114

Most common bacteria implicated in exotoxin-mediated food poisonings:

Staph. aureus
(Bacillus cereus is a close second)

115

Branching gram (+) rods with sulfur granules:

Actinomyces israelii

116

Calcified granuloma in the lung, hilar LAD:

Gohn complex, TB

117

Back pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss:

Pott's disease

118

Standard treatment regimen for TB:

RIPE
Rifampin
Isoniazid (+ pyridoxime, B6)
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

119

Strandard treatment for T. pallidum:

Penicillin G

120

Cellulitis from a dog or cat bite:

Pasturella multocida

121

Non-painful indurated, ulcerated genital lesion:

Chancre
T. pallidum, primary syphilis

122

Moist, smooth, flat, white genital lesion:

Condyloma latum

123

Large bull's-eye rash:

Erythema chronicum migracans

124

Diseases with Bell's palsy as a complication (6):

my Lovely Belle Had An STD:
Lyme
Herpes zoster
AIDS
Sarcoid
Tumor
Diabetes

125

Continuous machinery-like murmur:

PDA

126

"Boot-shaped heart" in an infant:

Tetralogy of Fallot
(RVH)

127

Rib notching:

Coarctation of the aorta

128

Most common congenital cardiac anomaly:

VSD

129

Most common congenital cause of early cyanosis:

Tetralogy of Fallot

130

Cor pulmonale:

R-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary disease

131

Nutmeg liver

Passive congestion, two causes:
1. R sided heart failure
2. Budd-Chiari syndrome

132

Bounding pulses, head bobbing, diastolic murmur:

Aortic regurgitation

133

Most common congenital heart murmur:

Mitral valve prolapse

134

Splinter hemorrhages under the fingernails:

Bacterial endocarditis

135

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers:

Roth spots
Seen in bacterial endocarditis

136

Heart valve most commonly involved in bacterial endocarditis:

Mitral valve

137

Heart valve most commonly involved in an IV drug user with bacterial endocarditis:

Tricuspid valve

138

Granulomatous nodules in the heart:

Aschoff bodies
Seen in rheumatic fever

139

Most common cardiac tumor in adults:

Metastases

140

Most common primary cardiac tumor in children:
In adults:

Rhabdomyoma
L atrial myxoma

141

Most common cause of constrictive pericarditis:

Lupus (in the U.S.)
TB (in developing countries)

142

Cold, pale, painful digits:

Raynaud's phenomenon

143

c-ANCA:

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
(Wegener's)

144

p-ANCA:

Microscopic polyangiitis

145

Treatment for Buerger disease:

Stop smoking

146

Treatment for temporal arteritis:

High-dose corticosteroids

147

Bone enlargement, bone, pain, arthritis:

Paget's disease of the bone

148

Vertebral compression fractures:

Osteoporosis

149

Most common cause of hypercalcemia:

Primary hyperparathyroidism

150

Most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism:

Parathyroid adenoma

151

Most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism:

Chronic renal failure
(remember this causes hyPOcalcemia)

152

Most common cause of hypoparathyroidism:

Accidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid surgery

153

Facial muscle spasm when tapping on the cheek:

Chvostek's sign
Sign of hypercalcemia

154

Parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary tumors:

MEN1

155

Positive anterior drawer sign:

ACL tear

156

Swollen, red, acutely painful great toe joint:

Podagra
Gout

157

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints:

Osteoarthritis

158

Swollen, boggy, painful finger joints:

Rheumatoid arthritis

159

Arthritis, dry mouth, dry eyes:

Sjogren's

160

Positively birefringent rhomboid-shaped crystals:

Pseudogout

161

Negatively birefringent needle-shaped crystals:

Gout

162

Cartilage erosion with polished bone beneath:

Eburnation seen with osteoarthritis

163

Bamboo spine on X-ray:

Ankylosing spondylitis

164

HLA-B27:

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies

165

Anti-Smith / anti-dsDNA Ab:

Lupus

166

Anti-histone Ab:

Drug-induced lupus

167

Anti-centromere Ab:

CREST

168

Anti-topoisomerase Ab:

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

169

Facial rash and Raynaud phenomenon in a young woman:

Lupus

170

Most common cause of death in SLE:

Lupus nephritis

171

Most common cardiac manifestation of SLE:

Libman-Sachs endocarditis

172

Most common opportunistic infection in HIV patients:

Pneumocystis

173

Keratin pearls on skin biopsy:

Squamous cell cancer

174

Most common malignant skin tumor:

Basal cell carcinoma

175

Prophylaxis for Cryptococcus in AIDS patients:

Fluconazole

176

Prophylaxis for PCP in AIDS patients:

TMP-SMX
(alternative: clinda + primaquine for people with sulfa allergies, or pentamidine, dapsone)

177

Treatment for Sporothrix schenckii:

Oral potassium iodide

178

Treatment for oral candidiasis:

Nystatin
Fluconazole if severe

179

Treatment for systemic candidiasis:

Amphotericin B

180

Treatment for central DI:

Desmopressin

181

Treatment for nephrogenic DI:

HCTZ, indomethacin, amiloride

182

Treatment for lithium-induced nephrogenic DI:

Amiloride

183

Nodular hyaline deposits in the glomeruli:

Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules
(DM)

184

Glomerulonephritis plus pulmonary vasculitis:

Wegener's
Goodpasture

185

Red cell casts:

Glomerulonephritis

186

Waxy casts:

Chronic renal failure

187

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney:

Chronic pyelonephritis

188

Most common renal tumor:

Renal cell carcinoma

189

Most common type of renal stone:

Calcium

190

Type of renal stone associated with Proteus vulgaris:

Struvite

191

Most common medication used for UTI prophylaxis:

TMP-SMX

192

Most common bacterium present in a patient with struvite kidney stones:

Proteus

193

Dark purple nodules on the skin in an HIV patient:

Kaposi's sarcoma
HHV-8

194

Temporal lobe encephalitis:

HSV-1

195

Owl's eye inclusions in monocytes:

CMV

196

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplets, setting of viral infection:

Type A Cowdry bodies
HSV / CMV infection

197

Aplastic anemia in a sickle cell patient:

Parvovirus B19

198

Child with a fever and "slapped cheek" rash on the face, spreading to the body:

Fifth disease, parvovirus B19