Flashcards in MIcrobiology: Parasites Deck (69)
Bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling stools:
Pear-shaped organism with tumbling motility:
Treatment for Giardia infection:
Organisms you treat with flagyl (6):
Flagyl = metronidazole
GET GAP for metro
Two nuclei in the trophozoite form, causes diarrhea in hikers:
This protozoal infection causes liver abscesses:
Blood diarrhea with RUQ pain:
Remember that it causes liver abscess
Describe the colonic abscesses associated with Entamoeba infection
Flask-shaped ulcers with a wide base and narrow mouth
Treatment for Entamoeba infection (2 part):
Metronidazole kills amoebae
Iodoquinol kills the cysts
Is chlorine effective in preventing Cryptosporidium infection?
Cysts seen on acid-fast stain:
In AIDS patients:
Cryptococcus: Diarrhea or meningitis?
Cryptosporidium: Diarrhea or meningitis?
Cryptosporidium -> diarrhea
Cryptococcus -> meningitis
Treatment for Cryptosporidium?
Trick question, there isn't one.
Prevention is the name of the game.
How do you diagnose Entamoeba infection (3):
Trophozoites containing RBCs in the blood OR
Multi-nucleated cysts in the stool
Trophozoites containing RBCs:
Brain abscesses in HIV, ring-enhancing lesions:
Classic triad for congenital toxo:
Treatment for Toxoplasmosis (2):
Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
This protozoan causes a rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis:
Where do you get it?
How is it diagnosed?
From freshwater lakes, up through cribiform plate
Spinal fluid has amoebae
Organism causing African sleeping sickness:
Trypanosoma brucei, gambiense, or rhodesiense
Treatment for African sleeping sickness:
"SUR is nice to take MELAtonin for sleep"
Suramin (for blood-borne disease)
Melarsoprol for CNS infection
Diagnosis of Toxoplasma (2):
Diagnosis of Trypanosoma infection:
This malaria species has a 48-hr fever cycle.
Malaria species with a 72-hr cycle?
Plasmodium vivax / ovale = 48hr
Plasmodium malariae = 72 hr cycle
This malarial form has no dormant liver form, whereas these two do:
P. falciparum = no dormant form.
P. malariae and vivax/ovale = have a dormant liver form
RBC filled with merozoites:
What is a hypnozoite?
How do you treat it?
Hypnozoite = resting liver form of malaria seen in vivax/ovale and malariae forms.
Tx is with primaquine
The ring form of this parasite can be confused with malaria, why?
How do you tell the two apart?
Babesia's ring form looks like the banana-shaped gametocyte of P. falciparum.
Babesia does not have hemazoin pigment deposits.
Maltese cross on blood smear:
Treatment for babesiosis:
Atovaquone + azithromycin
Chagas' disease, three common findings:
Magaesophagus (secondary achalasia)
Treatment for Chagas:
Macrophages containing amastigotes:
What is an amastigote?
Amastigote = non-flagellated form of the organism
Ulcerating papules, transmitted by the sandfly:
Spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia:
Treatment for leishmaniasis:
Cutaneous = sodium stibogluconate
Systemic = liposomal amphotericin B
Most common helminth infection in the US:
In the world:
US = Enterobius = pinworm
World = Ascaris = giant roundworm
Treatment for Strongyloides infection:
These worms infect by penetrating skin:
These worms are transmitted via fecal-oral route:
How is it transmitted?
Female blackfly bite
Tx = ivermectin
Worm in conjunctiva:
Causes lymphatic filariasis:
Huge hydrocele, transmitted by a female mosquito, how do you treat it?
This is elephantiasis caused by Wucheria, treat with diethylcarbamazine
Myositis and periorbital edema after eating undercooked bear:
Lives in muscles, dx by biopsy
From undercooked wild game or pork
New onset of neurologic symptoms in a young immigrant:
Taenia solium, think neurocysticercosis
Treatment for neurocysticercosis:
How is Taenia solium transmitted to people?
Ingestion of undercooked pork (larvae)
Ingestion of eggs (fecal-oral)
Came from dog feces, hyadatid cysts in liver:
Leak of liver cyst contents caused anaphylaxis:
Ate a raw freshwater fish and got vitamin B12 deficiency:
Undercooked fish, causes pigmented gallstones:
Brain cysts, seizures:
Vitamin B12 deficiency:
Biliary tract disease and cholangiocarcinoma:
Hemoptysis, crab meat:
Paragonimus (the "lung" fluke)
Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke)
Hematuria and bladder cancer:
Schistosoma haematobium (a blood fluke)
Necator, both roundworms
Both suck blood from intestinal walls
What happens if you drink alcohol while on flagyl?
Disulfarim-like reaction, feel awful