Endocrine Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (138)
Loading flashcards...
1

Which endocrine hormones are IP3 linked? T/F: Hormones from the posterior pituitary are IP3-linked.

GGOAT "butts" you:
GnRH
GHRH
Oxytocin
ADH
TRH
Oxytocin / ADH are from the posterior pituitary and are IP3-linked.

2

Which endocrine hormones are cAMP linked? (12)

FLAT ChAMP
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH
MSH
PTH
calcitonin / GHRH / glucagon too!

3

Hormones in the anterior pitiutary tend to be linked to which signaling pathway? Can you name 4?

cAMP. These include FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH.

4

Endocrine hormones which signal through steroid receptors (6):

VET3 CAP
Vitamin D, Estrogen, Testosterone, T3/T4, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone

5

Effect of too much SHBG in men? Too little in women?

Men: Gynecomastia with high SHBG.
Women: Hirsutism with low SHBG.

6

What kind of signaling path does prolactin use?

Tyrosine kinase

7

What kind of signaling path does oxytocin use?

IP3

8

What signaling path does insulin use?

Tyrosine kinase

9

GH is secreted from:

Anterior pituitary

10

Glucocorticoids are secreted from:

The adrenal cortex, zona fasciculata

11

Progesterone is secreted from (2):

Ovaries, placenta

12

Prolactin comes from the:

Anterior pituitary

13

Oxytocin comes from the:

Posterior pituitary

14

Glucagon comes from the:
Insulin comes from:
Somatostatin comes from:

Glucagon from alpha cells of pancreas
Insulin from beta cells
Somatostatin from delta cells

15

FSH comes from the:

Anterior pituitary

16

Vasopressin (ADH) comes from:

The hypothalamus (supraoptic nucleus), is stored in the posterior pituitary

17

TSH comes from the:

Anterior pituitary

18

Estradiol comes from the:

Ovaries

19

Estriol comes from the:

Placenta

20

Estrone is made by:

Fat

21

Lutenizing hormone comes from the:

Anterior pituitary

22

Mineralocorticoids / aldosterone comes from the:

Zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex

23

ACTH is excreted by the:

Anterior pituitary

24

This molecule is the precursor to ACTH, lipotropins, MSH, and the beta-endorphins:

Pro-opiomelanocortin

25

Four main causes of hyperprolactinemia:

1. Pregnancy / nipple stimulation
2. Stress
3. Prolactinoma
4. Dopamine antagonists

26

Where is somatostatin made?

In the GI tract, mostly D cells in gut mucosa, pancreatic delta cells make it too.

27

What does somatostatin do?

Inhibits secretion of GI hormones, decreases endocrine / exocrine secretion, reduces GI motility and GB contraction.

28

Three somatostatin analogues that are used clinically:

Octreotide
Somatostatin LAR
Lanreotide-P

29

In the fetus, this hormone is secreted late in gestation and is responsible for lung maturation:

Cortisol

30

Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in adults:

Pheo