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Year 2 Semester 2 > GI > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Deck (28)
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1

Regarding splanchnic nerves, where do the pre-ganglionics synapse in:
Major/minor splanchnic nerves
Lumbar splanchnic nerves

Major/minor splanchnic nerves: Caelico-mesenteric ganglion
Lumbar splanchnic nerves: Caudal mesenteric ganglion

2

What are the 3 major arteries that branch off the aorta?
What do they supply?

Caeliac=cranial abdominal organs
Cranial mesenteric=mid-abdominal organs
Caudal mesenteric=caudal abdominal organs

3

What are the 3 major branches that come off the caeliac artery?

Hepatic artery
Left gastric artery
Splenic artery

4

What are the 3 major branches that come off the cranial mesenteric artery?

Ileo-colic artery
Caudal pancreatico-duodenal artery
Jejunal arteries

5

What are the 2 major branches that come off the caudal mesenteric artery?

Left colic artery
Cranial rectal artery

6

What is the benefit of anastomoses?

If an artery gets occluded, the organ will be able to receive blood via a different route

7

All GI organs drain via which vessel?

Hepatic portal vein

8

Non-GI organs drain directly where?

Caudal vena cava

9

Which is the main branch going into the hepatic portal vein?

Gastro-duodenal vein

10

Where does the left gastric vein drain into?

Splenic vein

11

Where does the left testicular vein drain into?

Left renal vein

12

Which lobe of the liver features a renal impression?
Which species doesn't have this?

Caudate lobe
Pig

13

In the horse large intestine, what is the purpose of the taenial bands?

Aid in mixing and propulsion

14

Where is the satiety centre located?

Hypothalamus

15

What is the difference between probiotics and prebiotics?

Probiotics = sample of normal intestinal microbes
Prebiotics = substrates that promote normal intestinal microbes

16

What value should rumen pH be?

5.5-7

17

Severe/chronic vomiting leads to loss of what?

HCl
Causes metabolic alkalosis
Other electrolytes lost include Na+, Cl-, K+

18

Why is it advised to starve a dog/cat if they have a dietary upset disorder?

Reduces gastric secretions
Allows time for mucosal/enterocyte healing
24-48 hours

19

How does increased dietary fat lead to diarrhoea?

Unabsorbed fat is modified by GI bacteria -> decreased absorption -> hypertonic lumen contents -> water loss from cells by osmosis -> diarrhoea

20

What is the vomiting centre stimulated by?

Chemoreceptor trigger zone (via dopaminergic input)
GI tract via vagal/sympathetic afferent pathways
Vestibular apparatus via cholinergic/histaminergic afferent pathways

21

Why would we want to induce vomiting?

If an animal has ingested something toxic
To empty stomach prior to general anaesthetic (as these induce vomiting)
Ideally want to do it within an hour of animal eating, when food is still in stomach

22

How do antihistamines stop vomiting?

Block histaminergic and cholinergic afferent (input) pathways from vestibular organs to vomiting centre
eg promanthazine

23

How do anti-cholinergics prevent vomiting?

Block cholinergic afferent pathways from GI tract to vomiting centre
eg propantheline

24

What are laxatives/cathartics used for?

Relief of acute non-dietary constipation
Removal of toxic ingestants
Prevention of tenesmus (muscle spasm, feeling of constantly needing to poo)
Evacuation of bowel prior to surgery/radiography

25

How do osmotic cathartics work in easing constipation/ causing diarrhoea?

Non-absorbable therefore osmotically retain water in intestinal lumen
Lactulose metabolised by colonic bacteria into organic acids (lactic, formic, acetic) – increase osmotic pressure

26

How would you correct rehydration if the patient is vomiting?

Parenterally

27

What is the epiploic foramen bordered by?

Hepatic portal vein, liver and caudal vena cava

28

Which nerves make up the abdominal peripheral nervous system?

T13 and L1-L5