Flashcards in Pathology Deck (311)
What are the 4 types of amyloid?
AA (amyloid-associated) (seen in chronic inflammation)
AL (amyloid light chain)
Islet amyloid polypeptide (cats)
What is platelet rolling mediated by?
P-selectin (on endothelium) or von Willebrand factor (on extracellular matrix)
For what 3 reasons may buccola mucosal bleeding time be abnormal?
Thrombocytopenia (check first)
When calculating buccola mucosal bleeding time, how soon after making the incision should pressure be applied?
When performing a clot retraction test, an abnormal shrinkage result plus a normal platelet count is indicative of what?
What converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin?
What are the 3 groups of coagulation factors?
What are they activated by?
Contact group (activated by contact with collagen)
Vitamin K dependant group (activated by other factors)
Highly labile fibrinogen group (activated by thrombin)
Where are most coagulation factors produced?
What is the average half life of most coagulation factors?
Which factor starts the intrinsic pathway?
What is the end product of secondary hemostasis?
What colour tube (and anticoagulant) is used most commonly for coagulation testing?
Blue top (citrate)
What test is performed for testing the extrinsic pathway?
Prothrombin time (PT)
What is the fibrinolytic pathway mediated by?
What can you measure that specifically indicates the breakdown of cross-linked fibrin?
Are clotting factors present in plasma or serum?
What is albumin produced by?
What are globulins produced by?
Hepatocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells
Give 3 causes of decreased production of albumin
1. Chronic liver disease (lack of hepatocytes to make albumin)
2. Prolonged malnutrition (lack of precursor nutrients)
3. Maldigestion (pancreatic enzyme deficiency; cannot digest precursor nutrients)
Give 3 causes of increased loss of albumin
1. Kidney-glomerular leakage of albumin
2. GI loss
What happens to chylomicron remnants?
Travel to liver for uptake and degradation
Where is HDL formed?
Liver and intestinal epithelium
Lipaemia is primarily caused by increases in which two types of lipoprotein?
What are the functions of chaperones?
Interact with proteins
Aid with proper folding and transport
Facilitate degradation of proteins
What is the function of white blood cells (leukocytes)?
Destruction of microorganisms and removal of dead or damaged tissues
What is the function of platelets?
Haemostasis (stop bleeding)
Which blood cells live the longest?
Lymphocytes live weeks to years and may recirculate
(RBCs live 1to >5 months)
Which blood cell components have the shortest lifespan?
Why is it important to remember this?
Why should we care?
Neutrophils live 10 hours in the blood, and 24-48 hours in tissues
If there is a sudden arrest in haemopoiesis (formation of blood), neutropenia is the first thing we'd notice
A critical neutropenia may impair ability to fight infections
How long do the following live for?
RBC=1 to >5 months depending on species (160d cow, 150d sheep, 145d horse, 110d dog, 86d pig, 70d cat)
Lymphocytes=weeks to years, may recirculate
Neutrophils=10 hours in blood, 24-48 hours in tissues