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Year 2 Semester 2 > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (311)
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1

What are the 4 types of amyloid?

AA (amyloid-associated) (seen in chronic inflammation)
AL (amyloid light chain)
B-amyloid protein
Islet amyloid polypeptide (cats)

2

What is platelet rolling mediated by?

P-selectin (on endothelium) or von Willebrand factor (on extracellular matrix)

3

For what 3 reasons may buccola mucosal bleeding time be abnormal?

Thrombocytopenia (check first)
Platelet dysfunction
Vascular disorders

4

When calculating buccola mucosal bleeding time, how soon after making the incision should pressure be applied?

10 mins

5

When performing a clot retraction test, an abnormal shrinkage result plus a normal platelet count is indicative of what?

Thrombocytopathia

6

What converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin?

Thrombin

7

What are the 3 groups of coagulation factors?
What are they activated by?

Contact group (activated by contact with collagen)
Vitamin K dependant group (activated by other factors)
Highly labile fibrinogen group (activated by thrombin)

8

Where are most coagulation factors produced?

Liver

9

What is the average half life of most coagulation factors?

1-2 days

10

Which factor starts the intrinsic pathway?

XII

11

What is the end product of secondary hemostasis?

Cross-linked fibrin

12

What colour tube (and anticoagulant) is used most commonly for coagulation testing?

Blue top (citrate)

13

What test is performed for testing the extrinsic pathway?

Prothrombin time (PT)

14

What is the fibrinolytic pathway mediated by?

Plasmin

15

What can you measure that specifically indicates the breakdown of cross-linked fibrin?

D-dimers

16

Are clotting factors present in plasma or serum?

Plasma

17

What is albumin produced by?

Hepatocytes

18

What are globulins produced by?

Hepatocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells

19

Give 3 causes of decreased production of albumin

1. Chronic liver disease (lack of hepatocytes to make albumin)
2. Prolonged malnutrition (lack of precursor nutrients)
3. Maldigestion (pancreatic enzyme deficiency; cannot digest precursor nutrients)

20

Give 3 causes of increased loss of albumin

1. Kidney-glomerular leakage of albumin
2. GI loss
3. Burns

21

What happens to chylomicron remnants?

Travel to liver for uptake and degradation

22

Where is HDL formed?

Liver and intestinal epithelium

23

Lipaemia is primarily caused by increases in which two types of lipoprotein?

Chylomicrons
VLDLs

24

What are the functions of chaperones?

Interact with proteins
Aid with proper folding and transport
Facilitate degradation of proteins

25

What is the function of white blood cells (leukocytes)?

Destruction of microorganisms and removal of dead or damaged tissues

26

What is the function of platelets?

Haemostasis (stop bleeding)

27

Which blood cells live the longest?

Lymphocytes live weeks to years and may recirculate
(RBCs live 1to >5 months)

28

Which blood cell components have the shortest lifespan?
Why is it important to remember this?
Why should we care?

Neutrophils live 10 hours in the blood, and 24-48 hours in tissues
If there is a sudden arrest in haemopoiesis (formation of blood), neutropenia is the first thing we'd notice
A critical neutropenia may impair ability to fight infections

29

How long do the following live for?
RBC
PLT
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Neutrophils

RBC=1 to >5 months depending on species (160d cow, 150d sheep, 145d horse, 110d dog, 86d pig, 70d cat)
PLT=10 days
Lymphocytes=weeks to years, may recirculate
Monocytes=days
Neutrophils=10 hours in blood, 24-48 hours in tissues

30

What are the products of extravascular and intravascular lysis of RBCs?

Extravascular= bilirubin
Intravascular= free haemoglobin